Design and function of pre-organised outer-sphere amidopyridyl extractants for zinc(II) and cobalt(II) chlorometallates: the role of C-H hydrogen bonds.

School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, West Main Road, Edinburgh EH9 3 JJ, UK.
Chemistry - A European Journal (Impact Factor: 5.93). 05/2012; 18(25):7715-28. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201103616
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Four new sterically hindered pyridines, L(1)-L(4)-containing amido substituents at the 2-position act as efficient solvent extractants for [CoCl(4)](2-) or [ZnCl(4)](2-) from acidic chloride solutions through protonation of the pyridino N-centre to form the neutral outer-sphere complexes [(LH)(2)MCl(4)]. These ionophores show very high selectivity for chlorometallate anions over chloride ion and are readily stripped to liberate the free-metal chlorides without the formation of inner-sphere complexes [ML(2)Cl(2)]. Single-crystal X-ray structure determinations of [(L(2)H)(2)CoCl(4)] and [(L(2)H)(2)ZnCl(4)] (L(2) = 2-(4,6-di-tert-butylpyridin-2-yl)-N,N'-dihexylmalonamide) coupled with (1)H NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations on L(2)H(+) and other complexes of [ZnCl(4)](2-) confirm that the pyridinium NH group does not address the outer co-ordination sphere of the metallanion, but rather forms a hydrogen bond to the pendant amide groups and thus pre-organizes the ligand to present both C-H and amido N-H hydrogen-bond donors to the [MCl(4)](2-) ions. The selectivity for chlorometallates over chloride ions shown by this class of extractants arises from their ability to present several polarized C-H units towards the charge-diffuse ions [MCl(4)](2-), whereas the smaller, "harder" chloride anion prefers to be associated with the amido N-H hydrogen-bond donors.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A correlation-energy formula due to Colle and Salvetti [Theor. Chim. Acta 37, 329 (1975)], in which the correlation energy density is expressed in terms of the electron density and a Laplacian of the second-order Hartree-Fock density matrix, is restated as a formula involving the density and local kinetic-energy density. On insertion of gradient expansions for the local kinetic-energy density, density-functional formulas for the correlation energy and correlation potential are then obtained. Through numerical calculations on a number of atoms, positive ions, and molecules, of both open- and closed-shell type, it is demonstrated that these formulas, like the original Colle-Salvetti formulas, give correlation energies within a few percent.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 02/1988; 37(2):785-789. · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A series of easy-to-make fluorinated tripodal anion transporters containing urea and thiourea groups have been prepared and their anion transport properties studied. Vesicle anion transport assays using ion-selective electrodes show that this class of compound is capable of transporting chloride through a lipid bilayer via a variety of mechanisms, including chloride/H(+) cotransport and chloride/nitrate, chloride/bicarbonate, and to a lesser extent an unusual chloride/sulfate antiport process. Calculations indicate that increasing the degree of fluorination of the tripodal transmembrane transporters increases the lipophilicity of the transporter and this is shown to be the major contributing factor in the superior transport activity of the fluorinated compounds, with a maximum transport rate achieved for clog P = 8. The most active transporter 5 contained a urea functionality appended with a 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl group and was able to mediate transmembrane chloride transport at receptor to lipid ratios as low as 1:250000. Proton NMR titration and single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed the ability of the tripodal receptors to bind different anions with varying affinities in a 1:1 or 2:1 stoichiometry in solution and in the solid state. We also provide evidence that the most potent anion transporters are able to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells by using a selection of in vitro viability and fluorescence assays.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2011; 133(35):14136-48. · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compared with simple ion receptors, which are able to bind either a cation or an anion, ion pair receptors bearing both a cation and an anion recognition site offer the promise of binding ion pairs or pairs of ions strongly as the result of direct or indirect cooperative interactions between co-bound ions. This critical review focuses on the recent progress in the design of ion pair receptors and summarizes the various binding modes that have been used to accommodate ion pairs (110 references).
    Chemical Society Reviews 10/2010; 39(10):3784-809. · 24.89 Impact Factor