Sustained virological response prevents the development of insulin resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), which is a condition known to influence the progression of liver fibrosis and the response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)/ribavirin (RBV) therapy. We aimed to assess whether a sustained virological response (SVR) after antiviral therapy prevents the development of IR in the long term. Members of the Milan Safety Tolerability study cohort, who received PEG-IFNα2a/RBV or PEG-IFNα2b/RBV, underwent a homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) at the baseline and 24 months after treatment completion. For all patients (n = 431), a liver biopsy sample was scored for grading, staging (Ishak), and steatosis. At the baseline, IR (HOMA value > 2) was detected in 48 patients (12%), and it was associated with body weight (P = 0.03), an HCV load < 0.6 × 10(6) IU/L (P = 0.006), fibrosis staging ≥ 4 (P = 0.01), and moderate to severe steatosis (P = 0.03). IR did not influence the rates of end-of-treatment response (75% versus 69%, P = 0.4), SVR (63% versus 60%, P = 0.8), or relapse (19% versus 24%, P = 0.5). After treatment, IR developed in 49 of the 384 nondiabetic patients (14%). Although the mean baseline and posttreatment HOMA values were similar in SVR patients (1.11 ± 0.8 versus 1.18 ± 1.1, P = 0.25), patients experiencing treatment failure showed a significant increase in the mean HOMA value at the follow-up visit (1.20 ± 0.85 versus 1.49 ± 1.3, P = 0.007), and there was an increased rate of de novo IR in non-SVR patients versus SVR patients (17% versus 7%, P = 0.007). According to a logistic regression analysis, treatment failure (odds ratio = 2.81, 95% confidence interval = 1.39-5.67, P = 0.004) and a 10% body mass index increase (odds ratio = 6.42, 95% confidence interval = 1.69-24.3, P = 0.006) were significantly associated with the development of de novo IR. Conclusion: In nondiabetic patients with chronic HCV, the achievement of SVR with PEG-IFN and RBV prevents the development of de novo IR. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is linked to greater insulin resistance. Although HCV itself is a candidate for the development of insulin resistance, the effects of antiviral treatment on impaired glucose metabolism remain unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of clearance of HCV on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and hepatic expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1/2, central molecules for insulin signaling. We analyzed 89 biopsy-proven patients with chronic HCV infection. Patients received interferon-alpha or interferon-alpha plus ribavirin for 6 months and were classified into three groups at 6 months after the conclusion of antiviral therapy according to their response to antiviral therapy: sustained responders (N = 29), relapsers (N = 12), and nonresponders (N = 48). Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were assessed by the homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B, respectively). Hepatic expression of IRS1/2 was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunostaining in 14 sustained responders. In nonresponders and relapsers, there were no significant changes in HOMA-IR and HOMA-%B values after antiviral therapy. On the other hand, in sustained responders, HOMA-IR values significantly decreased to 1.7 +/- 0.8 from 3.1 +/- 1.1 (P < 0.05) after antiviral therapy. Similarly, HOMA-%B values significantly decreased to 90.6 +/- 10.0 from 113.7 +/- 15.3 (P < 0.05). Immunoblotting showed a threefold increase in IRS1/2 expression after clearance of HCV. Immunostaining revealed that greater IRS1/2 expression was seen in hepatocytes. We showed that clearance of HCV improves insulin resistance, beta-cell function, and hepatic IRS1/2 expression.The American Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2007; 102(3):570-6. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is a frequent feature of chronic hepatitis C. Whether insulin resistance could be the cause or consequence of steatosis and fibrosis is unknown. The ability of HCV genotype 3 to promote steatosis by itself provides an unique opportunity to answer this question. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships between insulin resistance, steatosis, and fibrosis according to genotype in 141 non-diabetic patients with biopsy proven non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis C. All patients had fasting serum glycaemia and insulinaemia measurements. Insulin resistance was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA IR) method. Liver steatosis was determined according to hepatitis C virus genotype (1 or 3). Logistic regression and multivariate regression analysis were used to identify variables independently associated with insulin resistance, fatty liver, and fibrosis. Although steatosis and fibrosis were more severe in genotype 3 patients, median HOMA IR was significantly higher in patients with genotype 1 related steatosis than in those with genotype 3 related steatosis (2.1 v 1; p = 0.001). Independent risk factors for steatosis were insulin resistance in genotype 1 patients (p = 0.001) and viral load in genotype 3 patients (p = 0.003). Among genotype 1 patients, independent parameters associated with insulin resistance were age (p = 0.04) and steatosis (p = 0.004). Steatosis was associated with more severe fibrosis whatever the genotype (p = 0.002). Among genotype 1 patients, although there was a significant relationship between circulating insulin level and fibrosis stage (p = 0.006), only steatosis and inflammatory score were independently associated with fibrosis. This study shows that insulin resistance is the cause rather than the consequence of steatosis and fibrosis in genotype 1 patients and that increased circulating insulin is a risk factor for fibrosis through insulin resistance induced steatosis.Gut 08/2005; 54(7):1003-8. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) is a reliable surrogate measure of in vivo insulin sensitivity in humans. In the present study, we compared insulin sensitivity as assessed by a 4-h euglycemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 300 pmol/l) clamp with HOMA in 115 subjects with various degrees of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We found a strong correlation between clamp-measured total glucose disposal and HOMA-estimated insulin sensitivity (r = -0.820, P<0.0001), with no substantial differences between men (r = -0.800) and women (r = -0.796), younger (aged <50 years, r = -0.832) and older (r = -0.800) subjects, nonobese (BMI <27 kg/m2, r = -0.800) and obese (r = -0.765) subjects, nondiabetic (r = -0.754) and diabetic (r = -0.695) subjects, and normotensive ( r = -0.786) and hypertensive (r = -0.762) subjects. Also, we found good agreement between the two methods in the categorization of subjects according to insulin sensitivity (weighted k = 0.63). We conclude that the HOMA can be reliably used in large-scale or epidemiological studies in which only a fasting blood sample is available to assess insulin sensitivityDiabetes Care 01/2000; 23(1):57-63. · 7.74 Impact Factor