Abdominal obesity, weight gain during adulthood and risk of liver and biliary tract cancer in a European cohort.
ABSTRACT General obesity has been positively associated with risk of liver and probably with biliary tract cancer, but little is known about abdominal obesity or weight gain during adulthood. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to investigate associations between weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), weight change during adulthood and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic (IBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct system cancer [EBDSC including gallbladder cancer (GBC)] among 359,525 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Hepatitis B and C virus status was measured in a nested case-control subset. During a mean follow-up of 8.6 years, 177 cases of HCC, 58 cases of IBDC and 210 cases of EBDSC, including 76 cases of GBC, occurred. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with risk of HCC and GBC. WHtR showed the strongest association with HCC [relative risk (RR) comparing extreme tertiles 3.51, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.09-5.87; p(trend) < 0.0001] and with GBC (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.16 for an increment of one unit in WHtR). Weight gain during adulthood was also positively associated with HCC when comparing extreme tertiles (RR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.49-4.13; <0.001). No statistically significant association was observed between obesity and risk of IBDC and EBDSC. Our results provide evidence of an association between obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, and risk of HCC and GBC. Our findings support public health recommendations to reduce the prevalence of obesity and weight gain in adulthood for HCC and GBC prevention in Western populations.
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ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) defines liver abnormalities ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with or without cirrhosis development, occurring in the absence of significant alcohol consumption, use of teratogenic medication, or hereditary disorders. The association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome is well documented and widely recognized. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dyslipidemia are the most common metabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, current evidence strongly indicates obesity and diabetes as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk factors. There is also growing evidence that suggests an increased risk of HCC in NAFLD patients, even surpassing other etiologies in some high-income countries. Epidemiologic data demonstrate a parallel rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, NAFLD, and HCC. As obesity and its related diseases have steadily afflicted larger populations, HCC incidence is expected to increase in the future. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie NAFLD development and subsequent progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis (insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress, hepatic stellate cell activation, cytokine/adipocytokine signaling pathways, and genetic and environmental factors) appear to play a significant role in the development of NAFLD-related HCC. However, a comprehensive view of molecular mechanisms linking obesity, T2DM, and NAFLD-related HCC, as well as the exact sequence of molecular events, is still not understood in its entirety. Good-quality data are still necessary, and efforts should continue towards better understanding the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms of NAFLD-related HCC. In this paper, we aimed to centralize the most important links supporting these relationships, focusing on obesity, T2DM, and NAFLD-related HCC, as well as point out the major gaps in knowledge regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind them.04/2015; 21(14):4103-10. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4103
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ABSTRACT: Inverse associations of coffee and/or tea in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been consistently identified in studies conducted mostly in Asia where consumption patterns of such beverages differ from Europe. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 201 HCC cases among 486,799 men/women, after a median follow-up of 11 years. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for HCC incidence in relation to quintiles/categories of coffee/tea intakes. We found that increased coffee and tea intakes were consistently associated with lower HCC risk. The inverse associations were substantial, monotonic and statistically significant. Coffee consumers in the highest compared to the lowest quintile had lower HCC risk by 72% (HR: 0.28; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.16 to 0.50, P-trend <0.001). The corresponding association of tea with HCC risk was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.78, P-trend=0.003). There was no compelling evidence of heterogeneity of these associations across strata of important HCC risk factors, including hepatitis B or hepatitis C status (available in a nested case-control study). The inverse, monotonic associations of coffee intake with HCC were apparent for caffeinated (P-trend=0.009), but not decaffeinated (P-trend=0.45) coffee for which, however, data were available for a fraction of subjects. Results from this multi-centre, European cohort study strengthen the existing evidence regarding the inverse association between coffee/tea and HCC risk. Given the apparent lack of heterogeneity of these associations by HCC risk factors and that coffee/tea are universal exposures, our results could have important implications for high HCC risk subjects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations.Methods:In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes.Results:Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11.Conclusions:Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 5 March 2015; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.654 www.bjcancer.com.