The patient's interpretation of myocardial infarction symptoms and its role in the decision process to seek treatment: the MONICA/KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry.
ABSTRACT The patients' misinterpretation of symptoms of an evolving acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cause for prolonged pre-hospital delays. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with an attribution of the symptoms to the heart and to investigate the association between symptom misinterpretation and time until first medical contact (delay time).
The study population comprised 1,684 men and 559 women, aged 25-74 years, hospitalized with a first-time AMI recruited from a population-based AMI Registry.
A total of 50.3 % of the patients attributed their experienced symptoms to the heart. Logistic regression modeling revealed that symptoms like chest pain, pain in the left upper extremity, and fear of death facilitated a correct attribution to the heart, whereas symptoms like vomiting or pain in the right upper extremity made a correct labeling difficult. Female sex, low educational status, migration background, and current smoking were associated with a higher risk of misinterpretation of symptoms. A family history of AMI or a history of angina pectoris, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were shown to facilitate a correct interpretation of symptoms. Variables associated with a misinterpretation of symptoms did not significantly differ between men and women. People with misinterpretation of symptoms had a 1.59-fold risk (95 % confidence interval 1.33-1.90) to have a delay time of at least 2 h, compared with persons who correctly attributed their symptoms.
Symptom misinterpretation is common among patients with AMI, significantly related to symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics and individual risk factors, and associated with a prolonged delay time.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between admission blood glucose levels and adverse outcomes after an incident acute myocardial infarction across a broad range of glucose levels in non-diabetic patients treated with modern therapy. The relationship between admission blood glucose and 28-day case fatality was studied in 1348 consecutively hospitalized patients with a first-ever myocardial infarction between January 1998 and December 2002 recruited from a population-based myocardial infarction registry. Patients were divided into quartiles on the basis of admission glucose level. Patients with elevated admission blood glucose had more adverse baseline characteristics than patients with lower glucose levels. After multivariable adjustment the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for 28-day case fatality among those in the second, third and fourth quartile in comparison to the first quartile were 1.55 (0.49-4.87), 3.21 (1.06-9.74), and 3.73 (1.28-10.92), respectively (p for trend=0.0054). Admission hyperglycemia was also associated with complications during hospital stay among 28-day survivors. The risk for major complications after an incident myocardial infarction was closely related to admission blood glucose concentrations near to or within the normal range, and certainly below the diabetic threshold. Thus, admission hyperglycemia still provides an early marker of bad prognosis after an acute myocardial infarction in an era of modern therapy.International journal of cardiology 12/2006; 113(2):229-35. · 7.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to study patients' interpretations, thoughts, and actions after symptom onset in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in total and in relation to gender, age, history of coronary artery disease, type of syndrome, and residential area and its influence on prehospital delay. We performed a national survey comprising intensive cardiac care units at 11 hospitals in Sweden. A total of 1,939 patients with diagnosed ACS and symptom onset outside hospital completed a questionnaire containing standardized questions within 3 days after admission. Three-quarters of the patients interpreted their symptoms as cardiac in origin, and the most common reason was that they knew someone who had had an acute myocardial infarction. The majority contacted a family member, whereas only 3% directly called for an ambulance. Interpreting the symptoms as cardiac in origin and severe pain were major reasons for deciding to seek medical care. Approaching someone after symptom onset and the belief that the symptoms were cardiac in origin were factors associated with a shorter prehospital delay, whereas taking medication to relieve pain resulted in the opposite. The reaction pattern was influenced by gender, age, a history of coronary artery disease, and the type of ACS, but to a lesser extent by residential area. Interpreting symptoms as cardiac in origin and approaching someone after symptom onset were major reasons for a shorter prehospital delay in ACS.Heart and Lung The Journal of Acute and Critical Care 01/2007; 36(6):398-409. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients experiencing an acute myocardial infarction are known to delay seeking treatment between 2 and 4 hours. This delay is problematic because individuals who receive treatment 2 or more hours after the onset of symptoms are less likely to benefit from emergent reperfusion techniques. Persons most likely to delay seeking treatment for an acute myocardial infarction and their reasons have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of selected demographic, clinical, cognitive, and environmental variables on the length of the time of delay. In addition, the study was designed to identify whether women delayed longer than men, and whether African Americans delayed longer than non-Hispanic Whites during an acute myocardial infarction. A structured interview was conducted in a convenience sample (N eq> 212) of African American and non-Hispanic White patients hospitalized after acute myocardial infarction. Patients were asked detailed information about the sequence of events prior to the acute myocardial infarction, and the symptoms experienced. Medical records were examined for clinical information. Women did not delay significantly longer than men (2.0 vs. 2.5 median hours). African Americans delayed significantly longer than non-Hispanic Whites (3.25 hours vs. 2.0 median hours). Race did not contribute unique variance to delay time in a simultaneous multiple regression analysis; however, race was a significant predictor variable in whether or not participants sought treatment within the first hour after the onset of symptoms. The variance in delay time for African American and Non-Hispanic White men and women that could be explained by the predictor variables ranged from 23-47%. The reasons for delay differed in part by sex and race.Nursing Research 52(3):159-67. · 1.56 Impact Factor