CCR1 blockade reduces tumor burden and osteolysis in vivo in a mouse model of myeloma bone disease
ABSTRACT The chemokine CCL3/MIP-1α is a risk factor in the outcome of multiple myeloma (MM), particularly in the development of osteolytic bone disease. This chemokine, highly overexpressed by MM cells, can signal mainly through 2 receptors, CCR1 and CCR5, only 1 of which (CCR1) is responsive to CCL3 in human and mouse osteoclast precursors. CCR1 activation leads to the formation of osteolytic lesions and facilitates tumor growth. Here we show that formation of mature osteoclasts is blocked by the highly potent and selective CCR1 antagonist CCX721, an analog of the clinical compound CCX354. We also show that doses of CCX721 selected to completely inhibit CCR1 produce a profound decrease in tumor burden and osteolytic damage in the murine 5TGM1 model of MM bone disease. Similar effects were observed when the antagonist was used prophylactically or therapeutically, with comparable efficacy to that of zoledronic acid. 5TGM1 cells were shown to express minimal levels of CCR1 while secreting high levels of CCL3, suggesting that the therapeutic effects of CCX721 result from CCR1 inhibition on non-MM cells, most likely osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. These results provide a strong rationale for further development of CCR1 antagonists for the treatment of MM and associated osteolytic bone disease.
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ABSTRACT: Until recently, inflammatory chemokines were viewed mainly as indispensable "gate keepers" of immunity and inflammation. However, updated research indicates that cancer cells subvert the normal chemokine system and these molecules and their receptors become important constituents of the tumor microenvironment with very different ways to exert tumor-promoting roles. The CCR5 and the CCL5 ligand have been detected in some hematological malignancies, lymphomas, and a great number of solid tumors, but extensive studies on the role of the CCL5/CCR axis were performed only in a limited number of cancers. This review summarizes updated information on the role of CCL5 and its receptor CCR5 in cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment and highlights the development of newer therapeutic strategies aimed to inhibit the binding of CCL5 to CCR5, to inhibit CCL5 secretion, or to inhibit the interactions among tumor cells and the microenvironment leading to CCL5 secretion.Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:292376. DOI:10.1155/2014/292376 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are unique multinucleated cells formed by fusion of preosteoclasts derived from cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which are induced by RANKL. However, characteristics and subpopulations of osteoclast precursor cells are poorly understood. We show here that a combination of TNF-α, TGF-β, and M-CSF efficiently generates mononuclear preosteoclasts but not multinucleated osteoclasts (MNCs) in rat bone marrow cultures depleted of stromal cells. Using a rat osteoclast-specific mAb, Kat1, we found that TNF-α and TGF-β specifically increased Kat1(+)c-fms(+) and Kat1(+)c-fms(-) cells but not Kat1(-)c-fms(+) cells. Kat1(-)c-fms(+) cells appeared in early stages of culture, but Kat1(+)c-fms(+) and Kat1(+)c-fms(-) cells increased later. Preosteoclasts induced by TNF-α, TGF-β, and M-CSF rapidly differentiated into osteoclasts in the presence of RANKL and hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, suggesting that preosteoclasts are terminally differentiated cells. We further analyzed the expression levels of genes encoding surface proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMM), preosteoclasts, and MNCs. Preosteoclasts expressed itgam (CD11b) and chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2; however, in preosteoclasts the expression of chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2 was not up-regulated compared to their expression in BMM. However, addition of RANKL to preosteoclasts markedly increased the expression of CCR1. In contrast, expression of macrophage antigen emr-1 (F4/80) and chemokine receptor CCR5 was down-regulated in preosteoclasts. The combination of TNF-α, TGF-β, and M-CSF induced Kat1(+)CD11b(+) cells, but these cells were also induced by TNF-α alone. In addition, MIP-1α and MCP-1, which are ligands for CCR1 and CCR2, were chemotactic for preosteoclasts, and promoted multinucleation of preosteoclasts. Finally, we found that Kat1(+)c-fms(+) cells were present in bone tissues of rats with adjuvant arthritis. These data demonstrate that TNF-α in combination with TGF-β efficiently generates preosteoclasts in vitro. We delineated characteristics that are useful for identifying and isolating rat preosteoclasts, and found that CCR1 expression was regulated in the fusion step in osteoclastogenesis.PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e47930. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0047930 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Acta Haematologica 02/2014; 132(2):129-133. DOI:10.1159/000357101 · 0.99 Impact Factor