A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX
IJRAP 01/2011; 2(508):1743--1745.
Traditional system of medicinal consists of large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importances and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and in its costal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji) a member of family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous, diuretic and inflammatory and used to treat digestive, carminative, tonic, spasmodic affections, amenorrhoea, and vitiated conditions of pita, inflammation and general debility. This review will be helpful to create interest towards Pedalium murex and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. KEY WORDS: Pedalium murex, anti-inflammatory, diuretics. INTRODUCTION Medicinal plants have been of age long remedies for human diseases because they contain components of therapeutic value 1 . Plants are used in modern medicine where they occupy a very significant place as raw material for important drugs 2 . Plants are considerably useful and economically essential. They contain active constituents that are used in the treatment of many human diseases. Plants are rich sources of ecologically developed secondary metabolites, which are potential remedies for different ailments. Extreme interest in plants with microbial activity has revived as result of current problems such as resistance associated with the use of antibiotics obtained from micro organisms 3 . Pedalium murex L. (Pedaliaceae) is a diffuse, more or less succulent herb found near the sea coast of south India 4 . Infusion of the leaves and stem in cold water is demulcent, diuretic and used for the treatment of gonorrhea. Leaves are used for ulcers. Fresh leaves and young shoots dipped and kept for few minutes in boiling milk, such milk is used as an aphrodisiac. Fruit is demulcent, diuretic, anti-spasmodic and aphrodisiac. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs. Juice of the fruit is an emmenagogue. Root is used for antibilious 5, 6 . Pharmacognostical study of the leaves of the plant was reported 7 . It contains alkaloids, a greenish fatty oil, small amount of resin and ash. Fruit contains a mucilagenous alkaloid, fat, resin, and gum. Caffeic acid, cumaric acid, daucosterol, ferulic acid, hepatatriacontonic acid 8 , vanillic acid 9 , ursolic acid and sitosterol were isolated from this plant. Flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, lipids, fatty acids, phenolic acids, amino acids and carbohydrates of Pedalium murex were reported 10 . Anti-bacterial activity Muruganantham have reported the antibacterial activity of P. murex fruits in methanolic extract against the different bacterial pathogens. The results of antibacterial activity are showed by P. murex leaf and fruits by the zone of inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria. The strongest antibacterial activities among all the 12 pathogens were obtained by Bacillus subtilis in leaf (17 mm) and fruit (15 mm) methanol extract with inhibition zone. Leaf and fruit demonstrated moderate (11 mm) and weak (8 mm) inhibiting activity against gram-negative bacteria. Positive control (Streptomycin) showed antibacterial activity and there was no inhibition with negative control 11 . Anti-microbial activity Shelke et al., reported the anti-microbial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of P. murex on bacteria Bacillus subtilus and fungi, Aspergillus niger were determined using cup and plate method. The ethanolic extract showed the wider zone of inhibition (1.5cm) in comparison with the standard drug, Streptomycin (1.3cm) against bacillus subtilus. While inhibition zone (1.3cm) was recorded for the same organism with aqueous extract compared with standard drug (1.4cm). Similarly the growth of Aspergillus niger was inhibited significantly by the ethanolic extract was 20.0 and 40.0 mg/ml for both bacteria and fungi. This study revealed the ethanolic extract showed strong inhibitory effect on the test organisms than aqueous extract 12 . Anti oxidant activity Madhu Babu et al., reported the antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fruits of P. murex (MEC) by using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and intoxicated rat liver as the experimental model. The MEC were administered hepatotoxic rats for 90 days (daily, orally at the dose of 70 mg per kg body weight). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in CCl4 and intoxicated rats was evidenced by a marked increment in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and also a distinct diminution in glutathione (GSH) content in the liver. In CCl4 + MEC – treated rats these biochemical parameters attained an almost normal level. The decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GRD) in CCl4 –intoxicatedrats, and its retrieval towards near normalcy in CCl4 + MEC& administered rats revealed the efficacy of MEC in combating oxidative stress due to hepatic damage. Elevated level of glutathione transferase (GTS) observed in hepatotoxic rats too showed signs of returning towards normalcy in MEC co-administered animals 13 . Aphrodisiac activity Hemalatha et al., have reported the aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of P. murex fruit during an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. While evaluating the anti-diabetic activity at a dose of
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