The authors' reply.
Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.62). 06/2012; 31(6):1185-6. DOI: 10.1002/etc.1846
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ABSTRACT: The present study assessed and compared the oxidative and reductive biotransformation of brominated flame retardants, including established polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) using an in vitro system based on liver microsomes from various arctic marine-feeding mammals: polar bear (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and ringed seal (Pusa hispida), and in laboratory rat as a mammalian model species. Greater depletion of fully brominated BDE209 (14-25% of 30 pmol) and DBDPE (44-74% of 90 pmol) occurred in individuals from all species relative to depletion of lower brominated PBDEs (BDEs 99, 100, and 154; 0-3% of 30 pmol). No evidence of simply debrominated metabolites was observed. Investigation of phenolic metabolites in rat and polar bear revealed formation of two phenolic, likely multiply debrominated, DBDPE metabolites in polar bear and one phenolic BDE154 metabolite in polar bear and rat microsomes. For BDE209 and DBDPE, observed metabolite concentrations were low to nondetectable, despite substantial parent depletion. These findings suggested possible underestimation of the ecosystem burden of total-BDE209, as well as its transformation products, and a need for research to identify and characterize the persistence and toxicity of major BDE209 metabolites. Similar cause for concern may exist regarding DBDPE, given similarities of physicochemical and environmental behavior to BDE209, current evidence of biotransformation, and increasing use of DBDPE as a replacement for BDE209.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 03/2011; 30(7):1506-14. · 2.62 Impact Factor
- Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2012; 31(6):1184-5; author reply 1185-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The absorption, disposition, metabolism and excretion study of orally administered 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100) was studied in conventional and bile-duct cannulated male rats. In conventional rats, >70% of the radiolabelled oral dose was retained at 72 h, and lipophilic tissues were the preferred sites for disposition, i.e. adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, skin, liver and lungs. Urinary excretion of BDE-100 was very low (0.1% of the dose). Biliary excretion of BDE-100 was slightly greater than that observed in urine, i.e. 1.7% at 72 h, and glucuronidation of phenolic metabolites was suggested. Thiol metabolites were not observed in the bile as had been reported in other PBDE metabolism studies. Almost 20% of the dose in conventional male rats and over 26% in bile-duct cannulated rats was excreted in the faeces, mainly as the unmetabolized parent, although large amounts of non-extractable radiolabel were also observed. Extractable metabolites in faeces were characterized by mass spectrometry. Monohydroxylated pentabromodiphenyl ether metabolites were detected; mono- and di-hydroxylated metabolites with accompanying oxidative debromination were also observed as faecal metabolites. Tissue residues of [(14)C]BDE-100 in liver, gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue contained only parent material. The majority of the 0-72-h biliary radioactivity was associated with an unidentified 79-kDa protein or to albumin.Xenobiotica 02/2006; 36(1):79-94. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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