Effect of perioperative blood transfusions on long term graft outcomes in renal transplant patients

Department of Nephrology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
Clinical nephrology (Impact Factor: 1.13). 06/2012; 77(6):432-7. DOI: 10.5414/CN107436
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is established that blood transfusions will promote sensitization to human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antigens, increase time spent waiting for transplantation and may lead to higher rates of rejection. Less is known about how perioperative blood transfusion influence patient and graft outcome. This study aims to establish if there is an association between perioperative blood transfusion and graft or patient survival.
This was a single center, national, retrospective cohort study. Data was collected on patients who received kidney transplants over a 14-year period (n = 2,013). The primary outcomes were graft survival and mortality in patients who received blood transfusions in the perioperative period compared to those who did not.
Patients who received blood transfusions had lower hemoglobin levels, were more likely to be male, and had higher rates of delayed graft function compared to those who did not receive a transfusion. The one year graft survival of those transfused was 83% compared to 94% in those not transfused (p = < 0.0001). Adjustment for confounding showed that the receipt of a blood transfusion remained associated with increased graft loss. Hemoglobin levels prior to transfusion did not have an influence on graft outcome.
Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with reduced long-term graft survival.

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    • "This effect of peri-operative transfusion was not found in recipients without DSA, suggesting that the combination of DSA and peri-operative blood transfusion may be particularly detrimental to the transplanted graft. Importantly , adverse events after peri-operative blood transfusion included not only antibody mediated rejection, but also poorer long term graft outcome and recipient death, independent of the risk of AMR and Non-AMR, consistent with the findings of O'Brien et al. [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Historic Red Blood Cell Transfusion (RBCT) may induce anti-HLA antibody which if donor specific (DSA), is associated with increased antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Whether post-operative RBCT influences this risk is unknown. We examined the RBCT history in 258 renal transplant recipients stratified according to prevalent recipient HLA antibody (DSA, Non-DSA or No Antibody). AMR occurred more frequently in patients who received RBCT both pre and post transplant compared with all other groups (Pre+Post-RBCT 21%, Pre-RBCT 4%, Post-RBCT 6%, No-RBCT 6%, HR 4.1 p=0.004). In the 63 patients who received Pre+Post-RBCT, 65% (13/20) with DSA developed AMR compared with 0/6 in the non-DSA group and 2/37 (5%) in the No-Antibody group (HR 13.9 p<0.001). In patients who received No-RBCT, Pre-RBCT or Post-RBCT there was no difference in AMR between patients with DSA, Non-DSA or No-Antibody. Graft loss was independently associated with Pre+Post-RBCT (HR 6.5, p=0.001) AMR (HR 23.9 p<0.001) and Non-AMR (6.0 p=0.003) after adjusting for DSA and delayed graft function. Re-exposure to RBCT at the time of transplant is associated with increased AMR only in patients with preformed DSA, suggesting RBCT provides additional allostimulation . Patients receiving pre+post-RBCT also had an increased risk of graft loss independently of AMR or DSA. Both pre and post procedural RBCT in renal transplantation is associated with modification of immunological risk and warrants additional study.
    Transplant Immunology 09/2013; 29(1-4). DOI:10.1016/j.trim.2013.09.008 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    • "The effects of blood transfusion on new HLA antibody formation appears to be low in the short term [1]. However the cumulative effect of transfusions may compromise outcomes in those needing a repeat transplant [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Given the unpredictable timing of deceased donor organs and the need for blood transfusion, this study was carried out to determine the rate and risk factors for transfusion in order to identifying a low-risk cohort in the face of a critical blood shortage. Methods This retrospective chart review examined 306 consecutive deceased solitary kidney transplant recipients from January 2006 to August 2012. Results Records show that 80 (26.1%) patients were transfused with a total of 300 units (0.98 units/transplant) during their first hospital stay. Transfusions were higher in patients on warfarin (8/14, 57%, 5.1 units/transplant) and antiplatelet agents (46/136, 33.8%, 1.1 unit/transplant) compared to no anticoagulants (74/156, 16.7%, 0.47 units/transplant). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis warfarin (odd ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5–27, P=0.001), antiplatelet agents (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.3, P=0.001), recipient age ≥55 years (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2–3.9, P=0.008), recipient male (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.2–0.64, P=0.001) and preop hemoglobin ≥115 g/L (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.18–0.57, P<0.001) were independent predictors of blood transfusion. Lower bleeding cohorts with transfusion rates <5% could not be identified. Conclusion The need for blood is significantly higher in subjects on either warfarin or antiplatelet agents. These patients might be avoided if kidney transplantation is to occur during a critical blood shortage. Unfortunately even patients not on anticoagulation are at some risk.
    04/2013; 2(1):4. DOI:10.1186/2047-1440-2-4
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    ABSTRACT: Renal anaemia is a frequent complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Severe anaemia (haemoglobin <90 g/l) is associated with increased risks of mortality and cardiac complications, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular disease, and impaired quality of life. Randomized controlled trials have tested the hypothesis that increasing haemoglobin level using erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) lowers these risks and improves quality of life. Use of ESAs to normalize haemoglobin levels (to ≥130 g/l) versus the partial correction of anaemia (to haemoglobin levels of 90-110 g/l) has repeatedly been shown to have no cardiac benefit and to be associated with no incremental improvement in outcomes and quality of life (except fatigue), but has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death. Use of more-intense iron dosing has been proposed in order to reduce ESA dosing but liberal intravenous iron therapy is also associated with complications, and its long-term safety has not yet been adequately investigated. For patients with CKD on dialysis, US medication labels recommend administering ESAs at doses sufficient to avoid transfusions, whereas European and Canadian labels recommend targeting haemoglobin levels of 100-120 g/l and 110-120 g/l, respectively. Treatment of anaemia to haemoglobin levels of 90-110 g/l in patients with CKD accomplishes what we want-a reduced need for transfusions and possible reductions in fatigue, while avoiding high doses of ESA or iron in order to achieve a specific haemoglobin goal.
    Nature Reviews Nephrology 02/2013; 9(5). DOI:10.1038/nrneph.2013.21 · 8.54 Impact Factor
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