Snail, a transcriptional regulator, represses adiponectin expression by directly binding to an E-box motif in the promoter.
ABSTRACT Adiponectin is a hormone that modulates many metabolic processes and is exclusively expressed in adipose tissue. However, complete understanding of the factors that regulate adiponectin expression is lacking. The following were investigated: (1) functional analysis of the human adiponectin promoter, (2) putative adiponectin repressor sequence activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes using promoter mutagenesis, (3) whether Snail, an E-box binding transcription factor, binds this repressor sequence, (4) if Snail regulates adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes.
To further understand how adiponectin expression is regulated, we isolated the human adiponectin promoter and analyzed its activity after serial deletions.
We found a negative cis-regulatory element located in the adiponectin proximal promoter sequence (-174 to -152bp), which contained an E-box site (CAACTG). The DNA binding activity of this putative negative regulatory factor was found to be sequence-specific and the binding activity is decreased during adipocyte differentiation time-dependently. Affinity chromatography identified the zinc-finger transcription factor Snail (SNAI1) as the putative negative regulatory factor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that Snail binds to this negative cis-regulatory element in pre-adipocytes, exclusively. Inhibition of Snail expression using small interfering RNA techniques increased adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, while overexpression of Snail reduced adiponectin expression. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relation between the expression of Snail and the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, which are transcription factors that regulate adipogenesis.
Snail is a novel regulator of adiponectin expression and probably has a role in regulating adipogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Snail belongs to the superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors and plays a crucial role in processes regulating cell fate, such as the formation of mesoderm and initiation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We have previously discovered that Snail modulates adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis. In the present study, we elucidated the functional role of Snail in adipocyte differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanism. Snail expression was dramatically decreased during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Overexpression of Snail blocked adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha, while knockdown of Snail expression stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and luciferase assay showed that Snail inhibits the transcriptional activity of the PPARγ gene by directly binding to the E-box motifs in the PPARγ promoter. Wnt10b induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), leading to inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells in accordance with increased expression of Snail, whereas adipogenic capacity was restored in Snail siRNA-transfected preadipocytes. LiCl (a GSK3β inhibitor)-treated cells also showed increased expression of Snail, with a reduced adipogenic potential. Snail-overexpressing 3T3-F442A cells did not differentiate into mature adipocytes in immunodeficient nude mice. Taken together, Snail is a novel regulator of adipocyte differentiation, which acts by direct suppression of PPARγ expression. Our data also indicate that the expression of Snail is mediated by the Wnt-GSK3β signaling pathway.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 05/2013; 70(20). DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1363-8 · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Predominantly secreted by adipose tissue, adiponectin possesses insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. Paradoxically, obesity is associated with declined plasma adiponectin levels; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic involvement of MEK/ERK1/2 pathway in obesity-related adiponectin decrease. MATERIALS/METHODS: C57 BL/6 mice exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD) were employed as animal obesity model. Both fully-differentiated 3T3-L1 and mouse primary adipocytes were used in the in vitro experiments. RESULTS: Obesity and plasma adiponectin decline induced by prolonged HFD exposure were associated with suppressed ERK1/2 activation in adipose tissue. In adipocytes, specific inhibition of MEK/ERK1/2 pathway decreased intracellular and secretory adiponectin levels, whereas adiponectin gene expression was increased, suggesting that MEK/ERK1/2 inhibition may promote adiponectin protein degradation. Cycloheximide (CHX)-chase assay revealed that MEK/ERK1/2 inhibition accelerated adiponectin protein degradation, which was prevented by MG132, a potent proteasome inhibitor. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that intracellular MEK/ERK1/2 activity was negatively associated with ubiquitinated adiponectin protein levels. Consistently, long-term HFD feeing in mice increased ubiquitinated adiponectin levels in the epididymal fat pads. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue MEK/ERK1/2 activity can differentially regulate adiponectin gene expression and protein abundance and its suppression in obesity may play a mechanistic role in obesity-related plasma adiponectin decline.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.01.025 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patient-derived cell transplantation is an attractive therapy for regenerative medicine. However, this requires effective strategies to reliably differentiate patient cells into clinically useful cell types. Herein, we report the discovery that 5-nitro-5′hydroxy-indirubin-3′oxime (5′-HNIO) is a novel inducer of cell transdifferentiation. 5′-HNIO induced muscle transdifferentiation into adipogenic and osteogenic cells. 5′-HNIO was shown to inhibit aurora kinase A, which is a known cell fate regulator. 5′-HNIO produced a favorable level of transdifferentiation compared to other aurora kinase inhibitors and induced transdifferentiation across cell lineage boundaries. Significantly, 5′-HNIO treatment produced direct transdifferentiation without up-regulating potentially oncogenic induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming factors. Thus, our results demonstrate that 5′-HNIO is an attractive molecular tool for cell transdifferentiation and cell fate research.Archiv der Pharmazie 11/2014; 347(11). DOI:10.1002/ardp.201400223 · 1.40 Impact Factor