ClpP: A structurally dynamic protease regulated by AAA+ proteins
ABSTRACT Proteolysis is an important process for many aspects of bacterial physiology. Clp proteases carry out a large proportion of protein degradation in bacteria. These enzymes assemble in complexes that combine the protease ClpP and the unfoldase, ClpA or ClpX. ClpP oligomerizes as two stacked heptameric rings enclosing a central chamber containing the proteolytic sites. ClpX and ClpA assemble into hexameric rings that bind both axial surfaces of the ClpP tetradecamer forming a barrel-like complex. ClpP requires association with ClpA or ClpX to unfold and thread protein substrates through the axial pore into the inner chamber where degradation occurs. A gating mechanism regulated by the ATPase exists at the entry of the ClpP axial pore and involves the N-terminal regions of the ClpP protomers. These gating motifs are located at the axial regions of the tetradecamer but in most crystal structures they are not visible. We also lack structural information about the ClpAP or ClpXP complexes. Therefore, the structural details of how the axial gate in ClpP is regulated by the ATPases are unknown. Here, we review our current understanding of the conformational changes that ClpA or ClpX induce in ClpP to open the axial gate and increase substrate accessibility into the degradation chamber. Most of this knowledge comes from the recent crystal structures of ClpP in complex with acyldepsipeptides (ADEP) antibiotics. These small molecules are providing new insights into the gating mechanism of this protease because they imitate the interaction of ClpA/ClpX with ClpP and activate its protease activity.
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ABSTRACT: The translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) envelope membranes of chloroplasts mediate the targeting and import of several thousand nuclear encoded preproteins that are required for organelle biogenesis and homeostasis. The cytosolic events in preprotein targeting remain largely unknown, although cytoplasmic chaperones have been proposed to facilitate delivery to the TOC complex. Preprotein recognition is mediated by the TOC GTPase receptors, Toc159 and Toc34. The receptors constitute a GTP-regulated switch, which initiates membrane translocation via Toc75, a member of the OMP85 (Outer Membrane Protein 85)/TpsB (two partner secretion system B) family of bacterial, plastid and mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins. The TOC receptor systems have diversified to recognize distinct sets of preproteins, thereby maximizing the efficiency of targeting in response to changes in gene expression during developmental and physiological events that impact organelle function. The TOC complex interacts with the TIC translocon to allow simultaneous translocation of preproteins across the envelope. Two inner membrane complexes, the Tic110 and 1 MDa complexes, have both been implicated as constituents of the TIC translocon, and it remains to be determined how they interact to form the TIC channel and assemble the import-associated chaperone network in the stroma that drives import across the envelope membranes. This review will focus on recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms and diversity of the TOC-TIC systems. Our goal is to incorporate these recent studies with previous work and present updated or revised models for the function of TOC-TIC in protein import.Journal of Molecular Biology 08/2014; 427(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2014.08.016 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria are frequently exposed to changes in environmental conditions, such as fluctuations in temperature, pH or the availability of nutrients. These assaults can be detrimental to cell as they often result in a proteotoxic stress, which can cause the accumulation of unfolded proteins. In order to restore a productive folding environment in the cell, bacteria have evolved a network of proteins, known as the protein quality control (PQC) network, which is composed of both chaperones and AAA+ proteases. These AAA+ proteases form a major part of this PQC network, as they are responsible for the removal of unwanted and damaged proteins. They also play an important role in the turnover of specific regulatory or tagged proteins. In this review, we describe the general features of an AAA+ protease, and using two of the best-characterised AAA+ proteases in Escherichia coli (ClpAP and ClpXP) as a model for all AAA+ proteases, we provide a detailed mechanistic description of how these machines work. Specifically, the review examines the physiological role of these machines, as well as the substrates and the adaptor proteins that modulate their substrate specificity.Sub-cellular biochemistry 01/2013; 66:3-33. DOI:10.1007/978-94-007-5940-4_1
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ABSTRACT: Targeted protein degradation is crucial for the correct function and maintenance of a cell. In bacteria, this process is largely performed by a handful of ATP-dependent machines, which generally consist of two components - an unfoldase and a peptidase. In some cases, however, substrate recognition by the protease may be regulated by specialized delivery factors (known as adaptor proteins). Our detailed understanding of how these machines are regulated to prevent uncontrolled degradation within a cell has permitted the identification of novel antimicrobials that dysregulate these machines, as well as the development of tunable degradation systems that have applications in biotechnology. Here, we focus on the physiological role of the ClpP peptidase in bacteria, its role as a novel antibiotic target and the use of protein degradation as a biotechnological approach to artificially control the expression levels of a protein of interest.Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2013; 23(4-5):335-44. DOI:10.1159/000352043 · 1.49 Impact Factor