ClpP: a structurally dynamic protease regulated by AAA+ proteins.
ABSTRACT Proteolysis is an important process for many aspects of bacterial physiology. Clp proteases carry out a large proportion of protein degradation in bacteria. These enzymes assemble in complexes that combine the protease ClpP and the unfoldase, ClpA or ClpX. ClpP oligomerizes as two stacked heptameric rings enclosing a central chamber containing the proteolytic sites. ClpX and ClpA assemble into hexameric rings that bind both axial surfaces of the ClpP tetradecamer forming a barrel-like complex. ClpP requires association with ClpA or ClpX to unfold and thread protein substrates through the axial pore into the inner chamber where degradation occurs. A gating mechanism regulated by the ATPase exists at the entry of the ClpP axial pore and involves the N-terminal regions of the ClpP protomers. These gating motifs are located at the axial regions of the tetradecamer but in most crystal structures they are not visible. We also lack structural information about the ClpAP or ClpXP complexes. Therefore, the structural details of how the axial gate in ClpP is regulated by the ATPases are unknown. Here, we review our current understanding of the conformational changes that ClpA or ClpX induce in ClpP to open the axial gate and increase substrate accessibility into the degradation chamber. Most of this knowledge comes from the recent crystal structures of ClpP in complex with acyldepsipeptides (ADEP) antibiotics. These small molecules are providing new insights into the gating mechanism of this protease because they imitate the interaction of ClpA/ClpX with ClpP and activate its protease activity.
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ABSTRACT: The translocons at the outer (TOC) and inner (TIC) envelope membranes of chloroplasts mediate the targeting and import of several thousand nuclear encoded preproteins that are required for organelle biogenesis and homeostasis. The cytosolic events in preprotein targeting remain largely unknown, although cytoplasmic chaperones have been proposed to facilitate delivery to the TOC complex. Preprotein recognition is mediated by the TOC GTPase receptors, Toc159 and Toc34. The receptors constitute a GTP-regulated switch, which initiates membrane translocation via Toc75, a member of the OMP85 (Outer Membrane Protein 85)/TpsB (two partner secretion system B) family of bacterial, plastid and mitochondrial β-barrel outer membrane proteins. The TOC receptor systems have diversified to recognize distinct sets of preproteins, thereby maximizing the efficiency of targeting in response to changes in gene expression during developmental and physiological events that impact organelle function. The TOC complex interacts with the TIC translocon to allow simultaneous translocation of preproteins across the envelope. Two inner membrane complexes, the Tic110 and 1 MDa complexes, have both been implicated as constituents of the TIC translocon, and it remains to be determined how they interact to form the TIC channel and assemble the import-associated chaperone network in the stroma that drives import across the envelope membranes. This review will focus on recent developments in our understanding of the mechanisms and diversity of the TOC-TIC systems. Our goal is to incorporate these recent studies with previous work and present updated or revised models for the function of TOC-TIC in protein import.Journal of molecular biology. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The massive erythrocyte lysis caused by the Group A Streptococcus (GAS) suggests that the β-hemolytic pathogen is likely to encounter free heme during the course of infection. In this study, we investigated GAS mechanisms for heme sensing and tolerance. We compared the minimal inhibitory concentration of heme among several isolates and established that excess heme is bacteriostatic and exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of heme resulted in noticeable damage to membrane lipids and proteins. Pre-exposure of the bacteria to 0.1 μM heme shortened the extended lag period that is otherwise observed when naive cells are inoculated into heme-containing medium, implying that GAS is able to adapt. The global response to heme exposure was determined using microarray analysis revealing a significant transcriptome shift that included 79 up regulated and 84 down regulated genes. Among other changes, the induction of stress-related chaperones and proteases, including groEL/ES (8x), the stress regulators spxA2 (5x) and ctsR (3x), as well as redox active enzymes were prominent. The heme stimulon also encompassed a number of regulatory proteins and two-component systems that are important for virulence. A three-gene cluster that is homologous to the pefRCD system of the Group B Streptococcus was also induced by heme. PefR, a MarR-like regulator, specifically binds heme with stoichiometry of 1:2 and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) with stoichiometry of 1:1, implicating it is one of the GAS mediators to heme response. In summary, here we provide evidence that heme induces a broad stress response in GAS, and that its success as a pathogen relies on mechanisms for heme sensing, detoxification, and repair.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 01/2014; 4:159. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in Eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of proteins and the availability of crystal structures has increased our knowledge on bacterial cell division considerably in this century. Consequently, bacterial cell division proteins are more and more recognized as potential new antibiotic targets. An international effort to find small molecules that inhibit the cell division initiating protein FtsZ has yielded many compounds of which some are promising as leads for preclinical use. The essential transglycosylase activity of peptidoglycan synthases has recently become accessible to inhibitor screening. Enzymatic assays for and structural information on essential integral membrane proteins such as MraY and FtsW involved in lipid II (the peptidoglycan building block precursor) biosynthesis have put these proteins on the list of potential new targets. This review summarises and discusses the results and approaches to the development of lead compounds that inhibit bacterial cell division.Bioorganic Chemistry 08/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor