Effects of Skin-to-Skin Contact on Autonomic Pain Responses in Preterm Infants

School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2026, USA.
The journal of pain: official journal of the American Pain Society (Impact Factor: 4.01). 05/2012; 13(7):636-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2012.02.008
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this randomized crossover trial was to determine the effects on autonomic responses in preterm infants of longer Kangaroo Care (30 minutes, KC30) and shorter KC (15 minutes, KC15) before and throughout heel stick compared with incubator care (IC). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and spectral power analysis of heart rate variability, low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), and LF/HF ratio were measured in 26 infants. HR changes from Baseline to Heel Stick were significantly less in KC30 and KC15 than in IC, and more infants had HR decrease in IC than in 2 KC conditions. In IC, LF and HF significantly increased from Baseline to Heel Stick and dropped from Heel Stick to Recovery; in 2 KC conditions, no changes across study phases were found. During Heel Stick, LF and HF were significantly higher in IC than in KC30. In all 3 conditions, LF/HF ratio decreased from Baseline to Heel Stick and increased to Recovery; no differences were found between IC and two KC conditions. Both longer and shorter KC before and throughout heel stick can stabilize HR response in preterm infants, and longer KC significantly affected infants' sympathetic and parasympathetic responses during heel stick compared with incubator care. PERSPECTIVE: This study showed that KC has a significant effect on reducing autonomic pain responses in preterm infants. The findings support that KC is a safe and effective pain intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit.

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    • "1.1. Skin-to-skin contact Skin-to-skin contact is operationally defined as the upright prone positioning of the diaper-clad infant skin-to-skin and chest-to-chest with the mother [5] Several studies have stated that mother–infant skin-toskin contact has a significant effect in reducing procedural pain in preterm infants compared to standard incubator care [5] [6] [17] [18]. Feldman and Eidelman found that skin-to-skin contact accelerates autonomic and neurobehavioral maturation in preterm infants [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Skin-to-skin contact reduces pain response in preterm infants subjected to minor painful procedures, such as heel lance. Diaper change is a procedure performed several times daily in hospitalized preterm infants. Routine care giving tasks such as diaper change may be stressful for the infant. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate whether diaper change induces stress and if skin-to-skin contact could reduce such stress, measured by changes in skin conductance. Study design This was a randomized crossover pilot study in 19 preterm infants with gestational age between 28 and 34 weeks. The diaper change procedure was done twice in each infant, once during skin-to-skin contact, and once in incubator or bed with the mother present. Outcome measures During diaper change heart rate (HR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and changes in skin conductance (SC) peaks per sec, using the Skin Conductance Algesimeter (SCA), were registered. Results The mean SC peaks/sec increased/decreased significantly under/after change of diapers which thereby underpins that this is a stressful procedure for the preterm infant. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) entails significantly lower stress levels (p < 0.05) compared to diaper changed in an incubator/bed measured by the SCA. Conclusions Diaper change is a stressful procedure for preterm infants and may be ameliorated by skin-to-skin contact.
    Early human development 04/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.01.011 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kangaroo Care (KC) has been recommended as a pain-reducing strategy in neonates; however, KC has not been widely used to minimize procedural pain caused in part by nurses'/phlebotomists' discomfort when positioning themselves and the infant for blood drawing and injections. Therefore, an ergonomically designed setup incorporating the use of KC was introduced into clinical practice to facilitate blood draws and injections. The step-by-step procedure used for heel sticks and injections is presented in this manuscript. After implementing the ergonomic step-by-step protocol, complaints of discomfort by nurses and phlebotomists ceased, and an additional benefit was that infant pain responses were significantly reduced.
    Neonatal network: NN 09/2013; 32(5):353-7. DOI:10.1891/0730-0832.32.5.353
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    ABSTRACT: Physiological and behavioral effects of evaluative handling procedures were studied in 72 newborn infants: 36 preterm (30-35 weeks of gestation) and 36 full-term neonates (39-41 weeks of gestation). While the neurological assessment was physiologically and behaviorally destabilizing to both age groups, preterm subjects had higher heart rate (P < .001), greater increase in blood pressure (P < .01); decreased peripheral oxygenation inferred from mottled skin color (P < .001); and higher frequencies of finger splay (P < .001), arm salute (P < .01), hiccoughs (P < .001), and yawns (P < .001) than full-term subjects. Both groups demonstrated greater stress during the neuromotor phase of testing. Neonatal care professionals must scrutinize the diagnostic benefit, reliability, safety, and timing of neurological assessment given expected physiological and behavioral changes in stable preterm neonates.
    The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing 07/2013; 27(3):242-52. DOI:10.1097/JPN.0b013e31829dc329 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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