Effects of skin-to-skin contact on autonomic pain responses in preterm infants.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this randomized crossover trial was to determine the effects on autonomic responses in preterm infants of longer Kangaroo Care (30 minutes, KC30) and shorter KC (15 minutes, KC15) before and throughout heel stick compared with incubator care (IC). Beat-to-beat heart rate (HR) and spectral power analysis of heart rate variability, low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), and LF/HF ratio were measured in 26 infants. HR changes from Baseline to Heel Stick were significantly less in KC30 and KC15 than in IC, and more infants had HR decrease in IC than in 2 KC conditions. In IC, LF and HF significantly increased from Baseline to Heel Stick and dropped from Heel Stick to Recovery; in 2 KC conditions, no changes across study phases were found. During Heel Stick, LF and HF were significantly higher in IC than in KC30. In all 3 conditions, LF/HF ratio decreased from Baseline to Heel Stick and increased to Recovery; no differences were found between IC and two KC conditions. Both longer and shorter KC before and throughout heel stick can stabilize HR response in preterm infants, and longer KC significantly affected infants' sympathetic and parasympathetic responses during heel stick compared with incubator care. PERSPECTIVE: This study showed that KC has a significant effect on reducing autonomic pain responses in preterm infants. The findings support that KC is a safe and effective pain intervention in the neonatal intensive care unit.
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ABSTRACT: There is a plethora of infant pain measures; however, none of them have been validated for extremely low for gestational age (ELGA) infants (<27 weeks' gestation). To date, clinicians, researchers and parents use information gleaned from more mature infants to make inferences about pain in ELGA infants. Using physiological or behavioral pain indicators derived from more mature infants may lead to inaccurate assessments and management. To compare physiological (heart rate, oxygen saturation) and behavioral (9 facial activities, cry) pain indicators of ELGA infants with infants of varying more mature gestational ages (GAs). The aim was to determine the effects of GA on pain response. GA was categorized into four mutually exclusive strata: <27 6/7 weeks, 28-31 6/7 weeks, 32-35 6/7 weeks and >36 weeks. Physiological data during four phases of a routine heel lance were collected by placing disposable ECG electrodes and pulse oximetry probes on the infant's chest. Behavioral data were collected by videotaping facial activities, and cry data were collected by audio recording. Four facial activities (brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial furrow, vertical mouth stretch) in response to acute pain were present in ELGA infants. Facial activities increased following painful procedures and the magnitude of responses was proportional to GA with the youngest infants (<27 6/7 weeks GA) showing the least amount of change. Decreased oxygen saturation and increased heart rate were associated with the most invasive phase of the heel lance; however, the differences were neither clinically or statistically significant across age groups. Cry was not a sensitive pain indicator in ELGA infants, due to the presence of endotracheal tubes in this high-risk population. ELGA infants have similar pain responses to older infants, but the responses are dampened. Other factors such as severity of illness, frequency of painful procedures or medication use should be examined, as they may influence the pain responses in ELGA infants.Neonatology 02/2008; 93(1):10-8. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Skin-to-skin contact, or kangaroo mother care (KMC) has been shown to be efficacious in diminishing pain response to heel lance in full term and moderately preterm neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine if KMC would also be efficacious in very preterm neonates. Preterm neonates (n = 61) between 28 0/7 and 31 6/7 weeks gestational age in three Level III NICU's in Canada comprised the sample. A single-blind randomized crossover design was employed. In the experimental condition, the infant was held in KMC for 15 minutes prior to and throughout heel lance procedure. In the control condition, the infant was in prone position swaddled in a blanket in the incubator. The primary outcome was the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), which is comprised of three facial actions, maximum heart rate, minimum oxygen saturation levels from baseline in 30-second blocks from heel lance. The secondary outcome was time to recover, defined as heart rate return to baseline. Continuous video, heart rate and oxygen saturation monitoring were recorded with event markers during the procedure and were subsequently analyzed. Repeated measures analysis-of-variance was employed to generate results. PIPP scores at 90 seconds post lance were significantly lower in the KMC condition (8.871 (95%CI 7.852-9.889) versus 10.677 (95%CI 9.563-11.792) p < .001) and non-significant mean differences ranging from 1.2 to1.8. favoring KMC condition at 30, 60 and 120 seconds. Time to recovery was significantly shorter, by a minute(123 seconds (95%CI 103-142) versus 193 seconds (95%CI 158-227). Facial actions were highly significantly lower across all points in time reaching a two-fold difference by 120 seconds post-lance and heart rate was significantly lower across the first 90 seconds in the KMC condition. Very preterm neonates appear to have endogenous mechanisms elicited through skin-to-skin maternal contact that decrease pain response, but not as powerfully as in older preterm neonates. The shorter recovery time in KMC is clinically important in helping maintain homeostasis. (Current Controlled Trials) ISRCTN63551708.BMC Pediatrics 01/2008; 8:13. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To demonstrate that skin-to-skin care (SSC) has no detrimental effects on the frequency of episodes of bradycardia and/or hypoxemia. Twenty-two spontaneously breathing preterm infants (median gestational age at birth, 29 weeks [range, 24-31 weeks]; age at study, 26 days [range, 7-72 days]; weight at study, 1310 g [range, 725-1890 g]) had three 2-hour recordings of breathing movements, nasal airflow, heart rate, and oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) before, during, and after SSC. Rectal temperature was obtained every 2 hours. Recordings were analyzed for baseline heart and respiratory rates, bradycardia (heart rate < two thirds of baseline), and hypoxemia (SpO(2) < or =80%), as well as for breathing pattern (regular vs non-regular). Baseline heart rate and respiratory rate increased during SSC (P <.01), as did the combined frequency of bradycardia and hypoxemia (from 1.5/h [0-8] before to 2.8/h [0-15] during SSC; P<.05). Rectal temperature increased from 36.9 degrees C (36.2 degrees -37.4 degrees C) to 37.3 degrees C (36.6 degrees -38.6 degrees C; P <.01). The proportion of regular breathing pattern decreased from 14% (2%-28%) to 7% (3%-26%) with SSC (P<.01). SSC was associated with a significant increase in the combined frequency of bradycardia and hypoxemia and with less regular breathing. These changes were unexpected and may have been related to heat stress. Body temperature, heart rate, and oxygenation should be monitored during SSC.Journal of Pediatrics 02/2001; 138(2):193-7. · 4.04 Impact Factor