Vaccines for melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT The inherent immunogenicity of melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has made these tumors a focus of considerable research in vaccine development. Recent data from murine studies of immunosurveillance have highlighted the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses in shaping a tumor's inherent susceptibility to immune surveillance and immunotherapy. Melanoma has been a useful model for the identification of tumor-associated antigens and a number of putative renal cell antigens have been described more recently. These antigens have been targeted using a variety of vaccine strategies, including protein- and peptide-based vaccines, recombinant antigen-expressing vectors, and whole cell vaccine approaches. While evidence for clinical benefit has been disappointing to date, several current phase III clinical trials are in progress based on promising results from phase II studies. Accumulating data suggest that the tumor microenvironment and mechanisms of immunological escape by established tumors are significant barriers that must be overcome before vaccine therapy can be fully realized. This review will discuss the basis for vaccine development, describe some of the more promising vaccine strategies in development, and mention some of the tumor escape mechanisms that block effective anti-tumor immunity for melanoma and RCC.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to conventional chemotherapy. Peptide can be utilized directly as a cytotoxic agent through various mechanisms or can act as a carrier of cytotoxic agents and radioisotopes by specifically targeting cancer cells. Peptide-based hormonal therapy has been extensively studied and utilized for the treatment of breast and prostate cancers. Tremendous amount of clinical data is currently available attesting to the efficiency of peptide-based cancer vaccines. Combination therapy is emerging as an important strategy to achieve synergistic effects in fighting cancer as a single method alone may not be efficient enough to yield positive results. Combining immunotherapy with conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy or combining an anticancer peptide with a nonpeptidic cytotoxic drug is an example of this emerging field.Journal of amino acids. 01/2012; 2012:967347.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Melanoma is an immunogenic tumor that can induce a natural immune response. A number of immunotherapy-based approaches have been developed over the past decades, and certain degrees of effectiveness were achieved by the use of cytokines, adoptive cell transfer and T-cell immune modulators. Currently, interleukin-2 and the immune stimulatory antibody, ipilimumab, are the only two approved immunotherapies for metastatic melanoma, but various new therapies are in promising developmental stages. This comprehensive review will discuss the latest achievements of immunotherapy and emerging directions for the management of advanced melanoma.American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 03/2013; · 1.84 Impact Factor