Interleukin-4 polymorphisms and response to combination therapy in Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients.
ABSTRACT In hepatitis C infection, the production of inappropriate cytokines levels may contribute to viral persistence and may affect the response to antiviral therapy. We investigate the effect of IL4 C-590T and C-33T polymorphisms on the response to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin in chronic HCV patients. These single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP in 235 responder and 210 non-responder to combination therapy. The IL4-590 T/T and -33 T/T genotypes were associated with resistance to the therapy (p<0.001, p=0.001 respectively). Haplotypes T(-590) T(-33) and T(-590) C(-33) were associated with a higher risk in non-responder patients than the responders (p<0.001 for each) while frequency of haplotype C(-590) C(-33) (with all wild alleles) was significantly higher in responders as compared to non-responders (p<0.001). These results suggest that inheritance of the IL4 polymorphisms may be associated with resistance to combined antiviral therapy in Egyptian HCV patients.
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-28B (IL28B) polymorphisms have previously been reported to be strongly associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced HCV viral clearance. To assess the impact of four different IL28B polymorphisms and their haplotype combination and interferon-c inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in response to treatment in Egyptian genotype 4 patients. 159 HCV-genotype 4 patients were included. All patients were treated with Peginterferon alph2a/Ribavirin for 48 wk. The following polymorphisms rs12979860, rs11881222, rs8103142 and rs8099917 and rs80803142 of Il-28 were known to be associated with the sustained virological response. They were genotyped using the TaqMan assay. IP-10 was assessed by Eliza. The data indicated that all SNPs are within the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) except for rs8103142 (p=6.255(-9)), therefore it was excluded from the study since it deviates from HWE-P. The CC, AA and TT genotypes of rs12979860, rs11881222 and rs8099917 were the more frequent genotypes among the responders at RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR, respectively. The frequency of CC, CT, and TT genotype was 46.4%, 38.1% and 15.5% among responders of RVR, and was 46.9%, 45.9% and 7.2 among responders of SVR for rs12979860, respectively. The relapse rate was 18.0% and 16.0 % during EVR and ETR, while the response rate was 52.8%, 58.5%, 59.7% and 61.6% after 4, 12, 48 and 72 weeks of treatment. The transient virological response (TVR) was 6.9% among HCV patients. The results showed that the odds ratio and 95% CI of HCV genotype 4 patients to have a better sustained response to treatment (SVR) was 2.92, (1.83-4.68, p=2.01(-5)), 2.89 (1.79-4.70, p=2.53(-5)), and 2.73 (0.21-0.65, p=0.0007) for those with the major allele "C" of rs12979860, the "A" allele of rs11881222, and the "T" allele of rs8099917, respectively. Furthermore, the positive predictive value (PPV) of the major homozygous alleles for SVR with better response to therapy was in the following order: 78.69%, 68.42%, and 32.14% with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.95, 1.25, and 0.86 for rs12979860, rs11881222 and rs8099917, respectively. The haplotype formed between the 3 studied SNPs (rs12979860, rs11881222 and rs8099917) showed that two haplotypes (TGG and TGT) increased the probability of a poor response to therapy, but the CAT haplotype had the opposite effect. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the viral load and rs12979860 are the only significant actors involved in the efficacy of the treatment response among the cohort study. In addition, patients with SVR had significantly lower values of IP-10 than non-responder patients (NR), with a P-value<=0.001. In genotype 4 cases, the IL28B SNPs rs12979860 rs8099917, and rs11881222 are the strongest predictors of a response, while IP-10 is a strong negative biomarker of a response. Accounting for this factor is important in the individualization of treatment and enhances the degree of predictiveness of the IL28 polymorphism in the final treatment outcome. The frequent distribution of C, A and T alleles of IL28 polymorphism are higher among TVR, which may reflect sensitivity to prolonged course.Virology 07/2013; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the associations between functional polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 (IL4) gene and individuals' responses to hepatitis B vaccine and their susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A literature search on articles published before December 1st, 2012 was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China BioMedicine (CBM) databases. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software. RESULTS: Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, including five cross-sectional studies on individual's response to hepatitis B vaccine and three case-control studies on HBV infection risk. The meta-analysis results showed that the T allele of rs2243250, the T allele of rs2070874, and the C allele of rs2227284 in IL4 gene were associated with high responses to hepatitis B vaccine. Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there was a significant association between IL4 genetic polymorphisms and an individual's responses to hepatitis B vaccine among Asian populations, but similar association was not found among Caucasian populations. However, there was no evidence indicating a correlation between IL4 genetic polymorphism and susceptibility to HBV infection. CONCLUSION: Our current meta-analysis suggests that rs2243250, rs2070874 and rs2227284 polymorphisms in IL4 gene may play an important role in determining the response to hepatitis B vaccine, especially among Asian populations. However, further studies are still needed to evaluate the associations between IL4 genetic polymorphisms and HBV infection risk.Gene 05/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system. Emerging evidences have shown that the common polymorphism (-590C/T; rs2243250 C>T) in the IL-4 gene may play an important role in the development of various liver diseases, but individually published studies revealed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aims to derive a more precise estimation of the association between the IL-4 -590C/T polymorphism and susceptibility to liver disease. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China BioMedicine databases was conducted on articles published before January 1st, 2013. Crude odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the strength of this association. Ten case-control studies were assessed with a total 1,140 patients and 1,649 healthy controls. The meta-analysis results indicated that the IL-4 -590T polymorphism might increase the risks of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections. Further subgroup analyses showed significant associations between the IL-4 -590T polymorphism and increased risks of liver diseases among Caucasian populations, but similar associations were not found among Asian populations. Univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that differences in ethnicity and clinical subtype are the major sources of heterogeneity. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis indicates that the IL-4 -590T polymorphism may play an important role in increasing HBV and HCV infection risks, especially among Caucasian populations.DNA and cell biology 06/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor