IDH mutations: New genetic signatures in cholangiocarcinoma and therapeutic implications

Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Translational Research Laboratory, GRJ-1008A, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. .
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy (Impact Factor: 2.25). 05/2012; 12(5):543-6. DOI: 10.1586/era.12.32
Source: PubMed
1 Follower
70 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal cancer of the biliary tract. The intrahepatic subtype of cholangiocarcinoma is increasing in incidence globally. Despite technologic advancements over the past decade, little is known about the somatic changes that occur in these tumors. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of common oncogenes in resected cholangiocarcinoma specimens that could provide potential therapeutic targets for patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 94 resected cholangiocarcinomas were used to extract DNA from areas comprising more than 20% tumor. Specimens were evaluated using the Sequenom MassARRAY OncoCarta Mutation Profiler Panel (San Diego, CA). This matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry single genotyping panel evaluates 19 oncogenes for 238 somatic mutations. Twenty-five mutations were identified in 23 of the 94 cholangiocarcinomas within the following oncogenes: KRAS (n = 12), PIK3CA (n = 5), MET (n = 4), EGFR (n = 1), BRAF (n = 2), and NRAS (n = 1). Mutations were identified in 7 (26%) of 27 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas and 16 (24%) of 67 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. When combined with IDH1/2 testing, 40 (43%) of the 94 cholangiocarcinomas had a detectable mutation. MassARRAY technology can be used to detect mutations in a wide variety of oncogenes using paraffin-embedded tissue. Clinical testing for somatic mutations may drive personalized therapy selection for cholangiocarcinomas in the future. The variety of mutations detected suggests that a multiplexed mutation detection approach may be necessary for managing patients with biliary tract malignancy.
    Human pathology 02/2013; 44(7). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.11.006 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The detection of aneuploidy by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has revolutionized how laboratories diagnose cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma using cytology specimens. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that FISH increases the diagnostic sensitivity of routine cytology for detecting pancreatobiliary tract malignancy with minimal decreases in clinical specificity. FISH also provides useful information in difficult clinical scenarios, including the assessment of patients with biliary strictures who have equivocal cytology results and the assessment of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis who have clinical features suggestive of malignancy. The improved ability to detect pancreatobiliary tract cancers offers the possibility of earlier detection when patients are amenable to surgical intervention and can decrease health care costs by reducing the amount of clinical evaluation required to arrive at a cancer diagnosis. Cytopathology personnel should maintain familiarity with molecular cytology testing methodologies, because morphologic and aneuploidy assessment of tumors will continue to be an integral part of large-scale genome analyses of individual tumors. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 04/2013; 121(11). DOI:10.1002/cncy.21303 · 3.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually harbor activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA, which promote tumorigenesis through activation of growth factor receptor signaling pathways. Around 15% of GISTs in adults and >90% in children lack such mutations ('wild-type' GISTs). Most gastric wild-type GISTs show loss of function of the Krebs cycle enzyme complex succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). However, the mechanism by which SDH deficiency drives tumorigenesis is unclear. Loss of SDH leads to succinate accumulation, which is thought to inhibit α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase enzymes, such as the TET family of DNA hydroxylases. TET proteins catalyze the conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), which is required for subsequent DNA demethylation. Thus, TET-mediated 5-hmC production alters global DNA methylation patterns and may thereby influence gene expression. We investigated 5-hmC levels in a cohort of genotyped GISTs to determine whether loss of SDH was associated with inhibition of TET activity. 5-hmC levels were examined via immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 30 genotyped GISTs, including 10 SDH-deficient tumors (5 SDHA mutant; 1 SDHB mutant; 1 SDHC mutant; 3 unknown), 14 tumors with KIT mutations (10 in exon 11; 3 in exon 9; 1 in exon 17), and 6 tumors with PDGFRA mutations (all in exon 18). Staining for 5-hmC was negative in 9 of 10 (90%) SDH-deficient GISTs, 3 of 14 (21%) KIT-mutant GISTs, and 1 of 6 (17%) PDGFRA-mutant GISTs. The other SDH-deficient GIST showed weak staining for 5-hmC. Thus, 5-hmC was absent in nearly all SDH-deficient GISTs. These findings suggest that SDH deficiency may promote tumorigenesis through accumulation of succinate and inhibition of dioxygenase enzymes. Inhibition of TET activity may, in turn, alter global DNA methylation and gene expression in SDH-deficient tumors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 7 June 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.86.
    Modern Pathology 06/2013; 26(11). DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2013.86 · 6.19 Impact Factor
Show more