Histological evolution of hepatitis C virus infection after renal transplantation.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: information regarding histological progression of hepatitis C after renal transplant (RTx) is scarce. AIMS: To analyze clinical and laboratory evolution and histological progression of hepatitis C in patients evaluated before and after RTx. METHODS: Twenty-two HCV-infected patients submitted to liver biopsy pre- and post-RTx were included. A semiquantitative analysis of necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis staging was performed and the two biopsies were compared. RESULTS: Patients were mostly men (73%) with mean age of 36 ± 9 yr. Time post-transplant was 4 ± 2 yr and time between biopsies was 5 ± 2 yr. An elevation of alanine aminotransferase (p = 0.041) and aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.004) levels was observed in the post-transplant period. Fibrosis progression after renal transplantation was observed in 11 (50%) of the patients, and necroinflammatory activity worsening was observed in 7 (32%) of the patients. The histological progression occurred even among those without significant histological lesions in pre-transplant biopsy. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the practice of indicating treatment in the pre-transplant phase based mainly on histological disease should be revised, because a high proportion of patients present disease progression. Because interferon cannot be used safely after RTx, treatment should be indicated for all ESRD patients with hepatitis C.
SourceAvailable from: Roberto J Carvalho-Filho[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) subjects under hemodialysis and in kidney transplantation (KT) recipients, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. The vast majority of HCV chronic infections in the hemodialysis setting are currently attributable to nosocomial transmission. Acute and chronic hepatitis C exhibits distinct clinical and laboratorial features, which can impact on management and treatment decisions. In hemodialysis subjects, acute infections are usually asymptomatic and anicteric; since spontaneous viral clearance is very uncommon in this context, acute infections should be treated as soon as possible. In KT recipients, the occurrence of acute hepatitis C can have a more severe course, with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis. In these patients, it is recommended to use pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in combination with ribavirin, with doses adjusted according to estimated glomerular filtration rate. There is no evidence suggesting that chronic hepatitis C exhibits a more aggressive course in CKD subjects under conservative management. In these subjects, indication of treatment with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin relies on the CKD stage, rate of progression of renal dysfunction and the possibility of a preemptive transplant. HCV infection has been associated with both liver disease-related deaths and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Among those individuals, low HCV viral loads and the phenomenon of intermittent HCV viremia are often observed, and sequential HCV RNA monitoring is needed. Despite the poor tolerability and suboptimal efficacy of antiviral therapy in CKD patients, many patients can achieve sustained virological response, which improve patient and graft outcomes. Hepatitis C eradication before KT theoretically improves survival and reduces the occurrence of chronic graft nephropathy, de novo glomerulonephritis and post-transplant diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C infection and chronic kidney disease are major health burden worldwide. Hepatitis C infection is associated with a wide range of extra-hepatic manifestations in various organs including the kidneys. A strong association between hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease has come to light. Hemodialysis in supporting the end stage renal disease patients unfortunately carries a risk for hepatitis C infection. Despite much improvement in the care of this group of patients, the prevalence of hepatitis C infection in hemodialysis patients is still higher than the general population. Hepatitis C infection has a negative effect on the survival of hemodialysis and renal transplant patients. Treatment of hepatitis C in end stage renal disease patients using conventional or pegylated interferon with or without ribavirin remains a clinical challenge with low response rate, high dropout rate due to poor tolerability and many unmet needs. The approval of new direct acting antiviral agents for hepatitis C may dramatically change the treatment approach in hepatitis C infected patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. However it remains to be confirmed if the newer Hepatitis C therapies are safe in individuals with severe renal impairment. This review article discusses the relationship between hepatitis C and chronic kidney disease, describe the various types of renal diseases associated with hepatitis C and the newer as well as the existing treatments for hepatitis C in the context of this subpopulation of hepatitis C patients.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led to most transplant centers developing protocols that allow safe utilization from donors with special clinical situations which previously were regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis C infection may represent a safe resource to expand the donor pool. When allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis C may result in an excellent short-term outcome and a significant reduction of time on the waiting list. Special care must be dedicated to the pre-transplant evaluation of potential candidates, particularly with regard to liver functionality and evidence of liver histological damage, such as cirrhosis, that could be a contraindication to transplantation. Pre-transplant antiviral therapy could be useful to reduce the viral load and to improve the long-term results, which may be affected by the progression of liver disease in the recipients. An accurate selection of both donor and recipient is mandatory to achieve a satisfactory long-term outcome.World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(11):2801-2809. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i11.2801 · 2.43 Impact Factor