Phase 1 dose-escalation trial of clofarabine followed by escalating dose of fractionated cyclophosphamide in adults with relapsed or refractory acute leukaemias
ABSTRACT The prognosis of patients with relapsed and refractory acute leukaemia (RRAL) is very poor. Forty patients with RRAL were enroled [28 acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), 12 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)] in this Phase 1 dose-escalation trial of daily-infused clofarabine (CLO) followed by cyclophosphamide (CY) for four consecutive days (CLO-CYx4). The median age was 48·5 years. The median number of prior regimens was 2 (range 1-5), and 6/40 patients (15%) had prior allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant. 28/40 patients (70%) had adverse genetic features. 6/40 patients (15%) died within 60 d of induction (two infections, four progressive disease). The average time to neutrophil recovery (absolute neutrophil count ≥0·5 × 10(9) /l was 34 d, (range, 17-78). The overall response rate (ORR) was 33% (13/40), with seven complete remissions (18%), four complete remissions with incomplete recovery of blood counts (10%), and two partial remissions (5%). ORR was 25% (7/28), and 50% (6/12), for AML and ALL respectively. Notably, the clinical responses were independent of dose level. 7/17 patients (41%) exhibited CLO-mediated enhancement of CY-induced DNA, which was associated with, but not necessary for, improved clinical outcomes. In summary, the CLO-CYx4 regimen was well tolerated and had activity in patients with RRAL, especially relapsed ALL. Therefore, CLO-CYx4 can be considered a salvage therapy for adults with RRALs, and warrants further investigations.
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ABSTRACT: The therapeutic scenario available for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has shown only partial progresses over the last few years. This is especially true for refractory and relapsed AML whose outcome is still extremely disappointing. In this context Clofarabine has offered new promising perspectives within first and second line protocols. This review will firstly describe the initial development in monotherapy, considering then the different potential combination strategies which include both polichemotherapeutic regimens and less conventional approaches with new generation drugs. The potential use of Clofarabine as induction treatment for patients candidate to stem cell transplantation and within conditioning regimens will be finally evaluated.Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 10/2014; 93(3). DOI:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2014.10.009 · 4.05 Impact Factor