Polymyositis-dermatomyositis and infections
ABSTRACT In genetically predisposed individuals, viruses, bacteria, or parasitic infectious agents are suspected to induce autoimmunity and/or to exacerbate the disease once the self-tolerance is broken. Although direct evidence for this association is still lacking, numerous data from animal models as well as from humans support the hypothesis of a direct contribution of pathogens to the induction of several autoimmune diseases. This review focused on the possible role of infectious agents as triggers of autoimmunity in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). Epidemiological studies, clinical and experimental findings that support the hypothesis of infection-induced PM and DM are summarized and discussed. In addition, immune response abnormalities and immunosuppressive medications may be responsible for the high percentage of infectious complications in PM and DM patients. In this review, the increased risk of developing infections in these patients is also underlined and published data are reported.
- SourceAvailable from: Sergio Prieto-González[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and sporadic inclusion-body myositis (sIBM) constitute a heterogeneous group of subacute or chronic acquired skeletal muscle diseases. Known as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), they all share the presence of considerable weakness due to muscle inflammation and necrosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, confirmed by laboratory examinations (serum muscle enzyme concentrations, autoantibodies against nuclear or cytoplasmatic antigens, electromyography, and muscle biopsy). Environmental exposures leading to immune activation in genetically susceptible individuals seem to be a probable pathogenic mechanism. Infectious agents, drugs, and ultraviolet radiation have been identified as a cause of the onset, exacerbation, or acceleration of these myopathies. Several case reports and population studies have been reported to support the relationship between inflammatory myopathy and the environment. Moreover, seasonal patterns of the onset of IIM have frequently been reported.Autoimmunity Reviews 11/2009; 9(5):A330-4. · 7.98 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: Adding indoor location capabilities to an IEEE 802.11 WLAN using real-time RTT measurements[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An accurate real-time application which locates mobile users in an indoor environment is highly demanded in hospitals, warehouses, etc., provided that minor changes in their infrastructure are required. Most present-day location techniques require a great calibration effort, or special devices which are not cost-effective. Avoiding these needs, this paper implements an autonomous positioning technique based on IEEE 802.11 RTS/CTS two-frame exchange in a real scenario. Two estimators of the delay profile measured are analyzed and a linear regression of them at each distance is performed from which the distance between a mobile user and an access point is estimated. Experimental results, without any tracking information nor nonline-of-sight mitigation, reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, 2009. WTS 2009; 05/2009