Management of penetrating cardiac injuries in the Department of surgery, Mohamed Thahar Maamouri Hospital, Tunisia: report of 19 cases.
ABSTRACT The goal of this paper is to discuss how to ameliorate the management of penetrating cardiac injuries in general surgery department. An algorithm for the initial assessment of penetrating injuries in cardiac box, based on our own experience, is presented. This was a retrospective study of 19 patients undergoing thoracotomy for penetrating cardiac injuries, managed in the department of general surgery of Nabeul-Tunisia, between 1994 and 2010. The mean age of patients was 25 years old. Sex ratio was 8,5. All patients had cardiac injury resulting from stab wounds inside of the pericardium. 42% of them were critically unstable, 21% had cardiac tamponnade. All these patients were quickly transferred to the operating room without any other investigations. 37% of patients were hemodynamically stable and underwent additional investigations. The management of penetrating cardiac injuries is possible in a general surgery department, but it requires a rapid prehospital transfer, a yet thorough physical examination along with efficient surgical management, all done in minimal time.
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ABSTRACT: Penetrating cardiac injuries are one of the leading causes of death from urban violence. This is a prospective, 1-year study in a Level I Trauma Center with the objective of analyzing: (1) the parameters measuring the physiologic condition of patients sustaining penetrating cardiac injuries in the field during transport and on arrival, (2) the cardiovascular-respiratory score (CVRS) component of the trauma score, (3) the mechanism and anatomic site of injury, (4) the presence or absence of tamponade, and (5) the cardiac rhythm as a predictor of outcomes. We attempted to correlate cardiac injury grade (AAST-OIS) with mortality. Our main intervention was thoracotomy for resuscitation and definitive repair of cardiac injury. Main outcomes measures were all parameters measuring the physiologic condition of patients, CVRS, mechanism and anatomic site of injury, operative findings and maneuvers, mortality, and grade of injury. The study consisted of 60 patients sustaining penetrating cardiac injuries, 35 gunshot wound (58%) and 25 stab wounds (42%). The injury severity score (ISS) was > 30 in 22 patients; overall survival was 22 of 60 (36.6%); gunshot wound (GSW) survival, 5 of 35 (14%); and stab wound (SW) survival, 17 of 25 (68%). An emergency department thoracotomy was performed in 37 of 60 (61.7%) with 6 of 37 survivors (16%). CVRS: 96% mortality (25 of 26) when CVRS = 0; 67% mortality (6 of 9) when CVRS = 1-3; and 25% mortality (7 of 25) when CVRS > 4 (p < 0.001). Mechanism of injury, and presence of sinus rhythm when pericardium opened predict outcomes (p < 0.001). Anatomic site of injury and tamponade do not predict outcomes (not significant). AAST-OIS injury grade and mortality: grade IV, 31 of 60 (52%); grade V, 20 of 60 (75%), and grade VI, 6 of 60 (100%). Parameters measuring physiologic condition, CVRS, and mechanism of injury plus initial rhythm are significant predictors of outcomes in penetrating cardiac injuries. The need for aortic crossclamping and the inability to restore an organized rhythm or blood pressure after thoracotomy were also predictors of outcomes. The presence of pericardial tamponade was not.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/1998; 186(1):24-34. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To present our experience with penetrating cardiac injuries. We have retrospectively reviewed the records of 70 victims of penetrating cardiac injuries. A logistic regression has been performed in order to determine the association between death and clinical predictors. Penetrating injuries consisted of 43 stab wounds (61.4%) and 27 (38.6%) gunshot injuries (P=0.72). There were 63 (90%) male and 7 female (10%, P<0.001) victims. The mean age was 27.36+/-11.51, ranging from 3 to 65 years. The overall mortality was 32.9%, 47.8% for gunshot wounds and 52.2% for stab wounds (P=0.266). Eight victims (11.4%) had associated intra-thoracic great vessel injuries and 17 (24.3%) presented associated intra-abdominal organ injuries. The incidence of injured chamber was: right ventricle 37.1%, right atrium 27.1%, left ventricle 25.7%, and left atrium 5.7%. Non-survivors had lower systolic blood pressure (37.50+/-39.18 mmHg) than survivors (79.04+/-41.04 mmHg; P<0.001) upon arrival at the hospital. Thirteen non-survival (56.5%) and 10 (21.3%) survival victims had systolic blood pressure (SBP) <or=50 mmHg (P=0.001). The level of systolic blood pressure (SBP<or=50 mmHg) and consciousness upon arrival at the hospital are predictors of outcome in victims of penetrating cardiac injuries.Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2005; 4(3):212-5. · 1.11 Impact Factor
Article: Penetrating cardiac injuries.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was planned to evaluate patients with penetrating cardiac injury. Twenty-two patients had cardiac injury among twenty-five patients who had been referred to our hospital with a suspicion of this diagnosis. Data of the patients were retrospectively evaluated. Echocardiography could be performed in 11 patients with stable haemodynamics and pericardial effusion was established in all of them with one false positive result. The patient with false positive result had left internal thoracic artery and venous injury. Cardiac tamponade was seen in 17 (77%) patients. Injury sites were right ventricle 10 (45.5%), left ventricle 7 (31.8%), left ventricle consisting left anterior descending artery 2 (9.1%), right atrium 1 (4.5%) and pericardial injuries and hematoma 2 (9.1%). The mean physiologic index (PI) of the patients was 10.68+/-5.63, penetrating cardiac trauma index was (PCTI) 14.09+/-6.3, penetrating thoracic trauma index (PTTI) was 17+/-8.84 and organ injury scale according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST/OIS) was 3.86+/-1.25. Mortality rate was 27.3% with 6 out of 22 patients. PI, PCTI, PTTI and AAST/OIS scores of the non-survivors were significantly higher than those of the survivors (p<0.05). While there was no difference between survivors and non-survivors regarding the presence of tamponade and the frequency of the associated abdominal injury, left ventricular and left anterior descending artery injuries and associated lung injuries were more common in non-survivors (p<0.05). Non-survivors with penetrating cardiac injury have higher PI, PCTI, PTTI and AAST/OIS scores and they are more severely injured patients comparing to the survivors.Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery: TJTES 04/2007; 13(2):135-41. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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Management of penetrating cardiac injuries in the Department of surgery, Mohamed
Thahar Maamouri Hospital, Tunisia: report of 19 cases
Sonia Baccari Ezzine1, Mahdi Bouassida1, Mechaal Benali2, Mosaab Ghannouchi1, Fethi Chebbi1, Sélim Sassi1, Mohamed Mongi
Mighri1, Hassen Touinsi1, Sadok Sassi1
1Department of surgery, Mohamed Thahar Maamouri Hospital, Nabeul, Tunisia, 2Department of reanimation, Mohamed Thahar Maamouri Hospital,
&Corresponding author: Dr Mahdi Bouassida,Service de Chirurgie Générale, Hôpital Tahar Maamouri, Nabeul, Tunisie
Key words: Cardiac injury, stab wounds, tamponnade, hemorrhage, cardiac repair, Tunisia
Received: 09/12/2011 - Accepted: 14/02/2012 - Published: 22/03/2012
The goal of this paper is to discuss how to ameliorate the management of penetrating cardiac injuries in general surgery department. An algorithm
for the initial assessment of penetrating injuries in cardiac box, based on our own experience, is presented. This was a retrospective study of 19
patients undergoing thoracotomy for penetrating cardiac injuries, managed in the department of general surgery of Nabeul-Tunisia, between 1994
and 2010. The mean age of patients was 25 years old. Sex ratio was 8,5. All patients had cardiac injury resulting from stab wounds inside of the
pericardium. 42% of them were critically unstable, 21% had cardiac tamponnade. All these patients were quickly transferred to the operating room
without any other investigations. 37% of patients were hemodynamically stable and underwent additional investigations. The management of
penetrating cardiac injuries is possible in a general surgery department, but it requires a rapid prehospital transfer, a yet thorough physical
examination along with efficient surgical management, all done in minimal time.
Pan African Medical Journal. 2012; 11:54
This article is available online at: http://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/11/54/full/
© Sonia Baccari Ezzine et al. The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
work is properly cited.
Pan African Medical Journal – ISSN: 1937- 8688 (www.panafrican-med-journal.com)
Published in partnership with the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET). (www.afenet.net)
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Despite the improvement in trauma care, penetrating injuries to the heart continue to be a source of significant mortality. Most penetrating cardiac
injuries are secondary to acts of violence. Penetrating wounds from sharp objects is associated in general with a better outcome than those
resulting from gunshot. All Tunisian series noted that penetrating stab wounds are more frequent as a result of the fact that the possession of fire
arms is illegal in Tunisia. A rapid diagnosis and surgical intervention can salvage patients who would otherwise be lost. All general surgeons should
be capable of recognizing these injuries and intervening if a cardiothoracic surgeon is not immediately available. The goal of our study was to
analyze the therapeutic pitfalls posed by penetrating cardiac injuries, based on our own experience and compared with the recent literature on the
Our retrospective series consisted of 19 consecutive patients undergoing thoracotomy for penetrating cardiac injuries, managed in the department
of general surgery of Nabeul during the seventeen-year period between the 1st of January 1994 and the 31st of December 2010. Among them, 17
patients had penetrating injury of the heart and two patients had pericardial injury and hematoma. Patients with thoracotomy performed for blunt
trauma and cases with iatrogenic lacerations of the heart were not included. The decision to perform thoracotomy was based on the discretion of
the attending general surgeon.
Data collected included patient age and sex, mechanism of injury (stab wound in all cases), method of hospital transportation (fire rescue, police
and private vehicles), initial clinical presentation and hemodynamic findings, preoperative investigations (chest radiographs, electrocardiogram,
echocardiography, CT scan) if present, surgical modalities for cardiac repair, length of hospital stay, hospital survival, and cardiac outcome.
Over a seventeen-year period (1994-2010), nineteen victims of trauma sustaining penetrating cardiac injury arrived alive at the department of
general surgery of Nabeul. Patients were primarily young (the mean age was 25). There were 17 men and 2 women. 65% of the patients were
transported by police, 11% by emergency medical system, and 24% by private vehicle. 11% of study patients underwent prehospital endotracheal
First clinical evaluation was done in the emergency room and showed: All patients had cardiac injury resulting from stab wounds inside of the
pericardium (18 patients in the left hemi thorax and only one patient in the right hemi thorax); 42% of patients were critically unstable (they had
systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mm hg), 10% of them were unconscious. 21% of patients had cardiac tamponade with Beck’s triad. These patients
underwent endotracheal intubation, venous lines were obtained, chest radiographs were done in emergency room and patients were quickly
transferred to the operating room without any other investigations; 37% of patients were hemodynamically stable and underwent additional
Chest radiographs were done to all our patients; it showed a haemopneumothorax in 35% of cases, a haemothorax in 23% of cases, an
enlargement of the cardiac silhouette in 23% of cases. Chest radiographs were normal in the other cases. Electrocardiogram was done to 4
patients; it showed a pulseless electrical activity in one case and a sinus tachycardia in three cases. Echocardiography detected hemopericardium
in 5 cases and was normal in one case (Figure 1).
In the two patients who had a CT scan, a hemopericardium was detected (Figure 2). 18 patients were operated in emergency condition the same
day of the traumatism (intermediate duration between the occurence of the wound and the intervention was of 45 minutes). Only one patient
having a stable hemodynamic state and a normal cardiac echography, was hospitalized and supervised. The hemodynamic deterioration of the
state on the 7th day required the practice of a thoracic scanner which objectified the existence of pericardial effusion therefore the patient was
operated. The left antero-lateral thoracotomy was the way of choice for our team.
In concern of operative findings, the left ventricle was injured in 2 cases, the right ventricle in 14 cases, and the right auricle in one case. There
was a contusion without myocardial lesion in 2 cases In addition to cardiac wounds; there were wounds of the pulmonary parenchyma in 3 cases,
a section of the internal thoracic artery in one case, a section of the intercostal pedicle in 2 cases and diaphragmatic injury in 2 cases. The
pericardium was opened in all the cases. Then, a temporary digital homeostasis was performed. The suture of the cardiac wounds by separate
points, reinforced by the pericardium, was done with non-resorbable 3/0 wire. Finally, pericardial stitch and drainage were performed. Associated
actions as suture of the pulmonary parenchyma, binding of the internal thoracic arteries and the intercostal pedicle and suture of the
diaphragmatic wounds were done.
We regret only one death during the operation with a patient having a 3 cm wound of the left ventricle. The average stay in intensive care unit
was 4 days. Immediate post-operative complications were observed in 6 patients: 3 cases of SDRA, an ischemic case of colitis, a case of
thrombosis of superior vena cava, a case of cerebral anoxia with muteness. The average duration of hospitalization was 15 day and all patients
were seen regularly after hospital discharge with a median follow-up of 6 years. 5 patients had a functional symptomatology with atypical thoracic
pains among 3 patients and effort dyspnea stage 2 among 2 patients. 5 patients kept electric after-effects: complete right block of branch among
three patients, and incomplete in two patients. 14 patients had a cardiac echography which was normal among all these patients.
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In this present series of penetrating cardiac injuries, all patients had stab wounds. In agreement with other series, our results have shown that
victims of penetrating cardiac injuries are predominantly young males as it is found in urban violence. However, hospital mortality in our series was
lower than what is usually reported, but still higher than in the cases of penetrating chest wounds without cardiac injuries.
The confirmation of the diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury may be difficult especially in patients with unstable hemodynamic status. It must be
kept in mind that all patients presenting with a precardial wound should be suspected of having a cardiac laceration . This does not exclude that
the wound can lie outside the confines of the “box”.
“Scoop and go” is an absolute prehospital principle of the management of patients suspected to have penetrating cardiac injuries. Only 4% of
patients arresting in the ambulance survived, but 74% of the patients who arrived to the operating room and underwent thoracotomy survived.
Clearly, these injuries are ominous and require rapid transfer .
Patients with penetrating cardiac injuries can be classified into five groups: lifeless, critically unstable, cardiac tamponnade, thoraco-abdominal
injury and those with a benign presentation . 42% of our patients belonged to the second group, 21% to the third group and 37% to fifth
As with all trauma patients a rapid, yet thorough, physical examination is mandatory. Location of wounds, assessment of cardiorespiratory status,
heart and lung sounds and, in haemodynamically stable patients, a portable chest radiograph can be expeditiously performed. Penetrating cardiac
trauma may result in exsanguinating hemorrhage or cardiac tamponnade. The rapid accumulation of even a small amount of blood causes
increased intrapericardial pressure resulting in decreased venous return, decreased cardiac output, hypotension and, ultimately death. Beck’s triad
of muffled heart sounds, hypotension and jugular venous distension is the classic description of the signs of cardiac tamponnade but is not
frequently present. The data on the survival benefit from tamponnade remains discordant. While some studies demonstrated increased survival
with tamponnade , other reports have shown no benefit [5,6]. On the other hand, it is admitted that the cardiovascular condition of the victims
and their consciousness status upon arrival to the hospital are significant predictors of outcome in penetrating cardiac injuries. In case of
hemodynamic instability, no preoperative investigations are mandatory. Chest radiographs are of limited value in the initial assessment of the
patient with penetrating cardiac injury.
The cardiac silhouette is not enlarged in about 80% of patients in acute cardiac tamponnade . At least 250 ml of pericardial fluid must be present
to detect heart enlargement radiographically. It was detected only for 23% of cases in our series. The electrocardiogram may suggest tamponnade
if QRS voltage is decreased or if the dominant QRS axis constantly changes (electrical alternans) secondary to the heart “floating” in the
pericardium. ST segment elevation may be observed. A normal electrocardiogram (ECG) does not rule out a cardiac injury .
Historically, sub-xiphoid window was the gold standard to look for haemopericardium but, there are reports stressing on the risk of subxiphoid
exploration like catastrophic hemorrhage or waste of valuable resuscitative time . Echocardiography has now become the modality of choice .
In a prospective, multicentric study of ultrasound in patients with possible cardiac wounds, Rozycki and colleagues reported 100% sensitivity, 97%
specificity, 97% accuracy  and mean time from study to operation of 12 minutes . Echocardiography was done to 6 of our patients and was
positive in 5 cases. In stable patients the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in detecting hemopericardium is highly
reliable. However, management of patients during CT examination may be very difficult if these patients deteriorate; then echocardiographic
examination with a portable device is the preferred method .
An algorithm for the initial assessment of penetrating injuries is presented (Figure 3). Patients with penetrating cardiac injuries can be presented
very quickly to the operating room and can be reasonably stable or absolutely moribund, so it is difficult to make blanket recommendations. The
value of fluid resuscitation should never be underestimated. Filling pressures of 25 to 30 mmHg may be necessary to oppose the resistance of
heart filling presented by an expanding pericardial volume. General anesthetic induction is potentially catastrophic until the bloody pericardial
effusion is released. Paralysis and endotracheal intubation should be undertaken thoughtfully, as positive pressure ventilation reduces right
ventricular preload and can decrease cardiac output acutely .
The choice of incision may be influenced by the surgeon’s experience. While a posterolateral thoracotomy affords excellent exposure of the pleural
cavity it allows only limited cardiac exposure. Another disadvantage is it may exacerbate haemodynamic instability, since the lateral decubitus
position can result in worsening hypotension . Median sternotomy affords optimal mediastinal exposure, it can be performed rapidly and allows
repair of the cardiac injury. While cardiothoracic surgeons have more experience with this approach, a well trained general surgeon is more than
capable of using it to treat cardiac injuries. Left antero-lateral thoracotomy was our approach of choice for emergency room thoracotomy.
The anatomic position of the heart within the thorax determines to some degree the injury encountered. The right and left ventricles each, are
injured about 40% of the time. The frequency of right atrial injury is 24% and that of left atrial injury 3%. For our series, 74% of patients had
right ventricular injury, 10% had left ventricular injury and 5% of them had right atrial injury.
Once the mediastinum has been exposed the pericardium must be opened. Several techniques are available to achieve temporary control of the
cardiac injury including digital control, placement of a Foley catheter and the use of skin staples. We favour digital control since it is a simple and
direct method. It does not need completely stop cardiac bleeding but rather decrease it and facilitate definitive repair . Cardiac bleeding is best
controlled by using 3/0 prolene on a large, round-bodied needle to go through both sides of the laceration in one pass of the needle. The two ends
of the suture are pulled upwards with one hand, greatly reducing bleeding as the edges of the wound are approximated; the needle is then re-
inserted to complete a figure-of-eight stitch.
The pericardium can be left open after placing mediastinal and thoracic drains. Closure of anterolateral thoracotomy is easy; the sternal part is
easily approximated with one wire, while the thoracic portion of the incision is closed in the standard fashion.
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Occasionally, lesions are recognized days after the initial injury. These are often intracardiac shunts, valvular decompensation (manifesting as
hypotension, pulmonary edema, and new murmurs), and ventricular aneurysms. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization are often needed to
characterize the abnormalities. The patient may also develop the postpericardiotomy syndrome, manifesting as fever, chest pain, pleural effusions,
pleural rub, and an ECG consistent with pericarditis (diffuse ST segment abnormalities). These patients are often treated with non-steriodal anti-
inflammatory drugs .
Penetrating cardiac injuries are one of the leading causes of death from urban violence. Outcome after penetrating cardiac injuries varies widely
depending on the injury’s mechanism, anatomic injury location, and physiologic status. The management of these injuries is possible in a general
surgery department, but it requires a rapid prehospital transfer, a yet thorough physical examination along with efficient surgical management, all
done in minimal time.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Figure 1: Echocardiography practiced in emergency confirming the hemopericardium
Figure 2: CT scan showed a hemopericardum associated with an important haemothorax
Figure 3: Algorithm of initial assessment of suspected cardiac injury
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