Passive Immunoprotection of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Mice Designates the CyRPA as Candidate Malaria Vaccine Antigen
ABSTRACT An effective malaria vaccine could prove to be the most cost-effective and efficacious means of preventing severe disease and death from malaria. In an endeavor to identify novel vaccine targets, we tested predicted Plasmodium falciparum open reading frames for proteins that elicit parasite-inhibitory Abs. This has led to the identification of the cysteine-rich protective Ag (CyRPA). CyRPA is a cysteine-rich protein harboring a predicted signal sequence. The stage-specific expression of CyRPA in late schizonts resembles that of proteins known to be involved in merozoite invasion. Immunofluorescence staining localized CyRPA at the apex of merozoites. The entire protein is conserved as shown by sequencing of the CyRPA encoding gene from a diverse range of P. falciparum isolates. CyRPA-specific mAbs substantially inhibited parasite growth in vitro as well as in a P. falciparum animal model based on NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice engrafted with human erythrocytes. In contrast to other P. falciparum mouse models, this system generated very consistent results and evinced a dose-response relationship and therefore represents an unprecedented in vivo model for quantitative comparison of the functional potencies of malaria-specific Abs. Our data suggest a role for CyRPA in erythrocyte invasion by the merozoite. Inhibition of merozoite invasion by CyRPA-specific mAbs in vitro and in vivo renders this protein a promising malaria asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate Ag.
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ABSTRACT: The development of a highly effective malaria vaccine remains a key goal to aid in the control and eventual eradication of this devastating parasitic disease. The field has made huge strides in recent years, with the first-generation vaccine RTS,S showing modest efficacy in a Phase III clinical trial. The updated 2030 Malaria Vaccine Technology Roadmap calls for a second generation vaccine to achieve 75% efficacy over two years for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and for a vaccine that can prevent malaria transmission. Whole-parasite immunisation approaches and combinations of pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccines are now reporting high-level efficacy, whilst exciting new approaches to the development of blood-stage and transmission-blocking vaccine subunit components are entering clinical development. The development of a highly effective multi-component multi-stage subunit vaccine now appears to be a realistic ambition. This review will cover these recent developments in malaria vaccinology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Advances in Parasitology 04/2015; 88:1-49. DOI:10.1016/bs.apar.2015.03.001 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic projects exemplify the "omics" era, and have significantly expanded available data for biomedical research. Recently, next generation sequencing technologies have even more greatly expanded DNA and RNA information. The present challenge is mining this information to obtain meaningful data such as that identifying novel drug targets and vaccine candidates. Several bioinformatics tools and new technologies have been used to high-throughput identification of potential candidates. We illustrate the utilization of new strategies in the study of two major parasitic diseases: schistosomiasis and malaria.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 07/2013; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.07.008 · 3.26 Impact Factor