Passive Immunoprotection of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Mice Designates the CyRPA as Candidate Malaria Vaccine Antigen
ABSTRACT An effective malaria vaccine could prove to be the most cost-effective and efficacious means of preventing severe disease and death from malaria. In an endeavor to identify novel vaccine targets, we tested predicted Plasmodium falciparum open reading frames for proteins that elicit parasite-inhibitory Abs. This has led to the identification of the cysteine-rich protective Ag (CyRPA). CyRPA is a cysteine-rich protein harboring a predicted signal sequence. The stage-specific expression of CyRPA in late schizonts resembles that of proteins known to be involved in merozoite invasion. Immunofluorescence staining localized CyRPA at the apex of merozoites. The entire protein is conserved as shown by sequencing of the CyRPA encoding gene from a diverse range of P. falciparum isolates. CyRPA-specific mAbs substantially inhibited parasite growth in vitro as well as in a P. falciparum animal model based on NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice engrafted with human erythrocytes. In contrast to other P. falciparum mouse models, this system generated very consistent results and evinced a dose-response relationship and therefore represents an unprecedented in vivo model for quantitative comparison of the functional potencies of malaria-specific Abs. Our data suggest a role for CyRPA in erythrocyte invasion by the merozoite. Inhibition of merozoite invasion by CyRPA-specific mAbs in vitro and in vivo renders this protein a promising malaria asexual blood-stage vaccine candidate Ag.
- SourceAvailable from: Paola FavuzzaMalaria Journal 10/2012; 11(1). DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-11-S1-P30 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic projects exemplify the "omics" era, and have significantly expanded available data for biomedical research. Recently, next generation sequencing technologies have even more greatly expanded DNA and RNA information. The present challenge is mining this information to obtain meaningful data such as that identifying novel drug targets and vaccine candidates. Several bioinformatics tools and new technologies have been used to high-throughput identification of potential candidates. We illustrate the utilization of new strategies in the study of two major parasitic diseases: schistosomiasis and malaria.Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 07/2013; 19. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2013.07.008 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is a highly intricate process in which Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 5 (PfRH5) is an indispensable parasite ligand that binds with its erythrocyte receptor, Basigin. PfRH5 is a leading blood-stage vaccine candidate because it exhibits limited polymorphisms and elicits potent strain-transcending parasite neutralizing antibodies. However, the mechanism by which it is anchored to the merozoite surface remains unknown because both PfRH5 and the PfRH5-interacting protein (PfRipr) lack transmembrane domains and GPI anchors. Here we have identified a conserved GPI-linked parasite protein, Cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA) as an interacting partner of PfRH5-PfRipr that tethers the PfRH5/ PfRipr/CyRPA multiprotein complex on the merozoite surface. CyRPA was demonstrated to be GPI-linked, localized in the micronemes, and essential for erythrocyte invasion. Specific antibodies against the three proteins successfully detected the intact complex in the parasite and coimmunoprecipitated the three interacting partners. Importantly, full-length CyRPA antibodies displayed potent straintranscending invasion inhibition, as observed for PfRH5. CyRPA does not bind with erythrocytes, suggesting that its parasite neutralizing antibodies likely block its critical interaction with PfRH5-PfRipr, leading to a blockade of erythrocyte invasion. Further, CyRPA and PfRH5 antibody combinations produced synergistic invasion inhibition, suggesting that simultaneous blockade of the PfRH5–Basigin and PfRH5/PfRipr/CyRPA interactions produced an enhanced inhibitory effect. Our discovery of the critical interactions between PfRH5, PfRipr, and the GPI-anchored CyRPA clearly defines the components of the essential PfRH5 adhesion complex for P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion and offers it as a previously unidentified potent target for antimalarial strategies that could abrogate formation of the crucial multiprotein complex.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1415466112 · 9.81 Impact Factor