NF-κB hyperactivation in tumor tissues allows tumor-selective reprogramming of the chemokine microenvironment to enhance the recruitment of cytolytic T effector cells.
ABSTRACT Tumor infiltration with effector CD8(+) T cells (T(eff)) predicts longer recurrence-free survival in many types of human cancer, illustrating the broad significance of T(eff) for effective immunosurveillance. Colorectal tumors with reduced accumulation of T(eff) express low levels of T(eff)-attracting chemokines such as CXCL10/IP10 and CCL5/RANTES. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of enhancing tumor production of T(eff)-attracting chemokines as a cancer therapeutic strategy using a tissue explant culture system to analyze chemokine induction in intact tumor tissues. In different tumor explants, we observed highly heterogeneous responses to IFNα or poly-I:C (a TLR3 ligand) when they were applied individually. In contrast, a combination of IFNα and poly-I:C uniformly enhanced the production of CXCL10 and CCL5 in all tumor lesions. Moreover, these effects could be optimized by the further addition of COX inhibitors. Applying this triple combination also uniformly suppressed the production of CCL22/MDC, a chemokine associated with infiltration of T regulatory cells (T(reg)). The T(eff)-enhancing effects of this treatment occurred selectively in tumor tissues, as compared with tissues derived from tumor margins. These effects relied on the increased propensity of tumor-associated cells (mostly fibroblasts and infiltrating inflammatory cells) to hyperactivate NF-κB and produce T(eff)-attracting chemokines in response to treatment, resulting in an enhanced ability of the treated tumors to attract T(eff) cells and reduced ability to attract T(reg) cells. Together, our findings suggest the feasibility of exploiting NF-κB hyperactivation in the tumor microenvironment to selectively enhance T(eff) entry into colon tumors.
SourceAvailable from: Ravikumar Muthuswamy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BCG is a prototypal cancer immunotherapeutic factor currently approved of bladder cancer. In attempt to further enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy of bladder cancer and, potentially, other malignancies, we evaluated the impact of BCG on local production of chemokines attracting the desirable effector CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) and undesirable myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSCs) and regulatory T(reg) cells, and the ability of bladder cancer tissues to attract CTLs. Freshly resected bladder cancer tissues were either analyzed immediately or cultured ex vivo in the absence or presence of the tested factors. The expression of chemokine genes, secretion of chemokines and their local sources in freshly harvested and ex vivo-treated tumor explants were analyzed by quantitative PCR (Taqman), ELISAs and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy. Migration of CTLs was evaluated ex vivo, using 24-transwell plates. Spearman correlation was used for correlative analysis, while paired Students T test or Wilcoxon was used for statistical analysis of the data. Bladder cancer tissues spontaneously expressed high levels of the granulocyte/MDSC-attractant CXCL8 and Treg-attractant CCL22, but only marginal levels of the CTL-attracting chemokines: CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10. Baseline CXCL10 showed strong correlation with local expression of CTL markers. Unexpectedly, BCG selectively induced only the undesirable chemokines, CCL22 and CXCL8, but had only marginal impact on CXCL10 production. In sharp contrast, the combination of IFNα and a TLR3 ligand, poly-I:C (but not the combinations of BCG with IFNα or BCG with poly-I:C), induced high levels of intra-tumoral production of CXCL10 and promoted CTL attraction. The combination of BCG with IFNα + poly-I:C regimen did not show additional advantage. The current data indicate that suboptimal ability of BCG to reprogram cancer-associated chemokine environment may be a factor limiting its therapeutic activity. Our observations that the combination of BCG with (or replacement by) IFNα and poly-I:C allows to reprogram bladder cancer tissues for enhanced CTL entry may provide for new methods of improving the effectiveness of immunotherapy of bladder cancer, helping to extend BCG applications to its more advanced forms, and, potentially, other diseases.12/2015; 3(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s40425-015-0050-8
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models have been used in cancer research as an intermediate model between in vitro cancer cell line cultures and in vivo tumor. Spherical cancer models represent major 3D in vitro models that have been described over the past 4 decades. These models have gained popularity in cancer stem cell research using tumorospheres. Thus, it is crucial to define and clarify the different spherical cancer models thus far described. Here, we focus on in vitro multicellular spheres used in cancer research. All these spherelike structures are characterized by their well-rounded shape, the presence of cancer cells, and their capacity to be maintained as free-floating cultures. We propose a rational classification of the four most commonly used spherical cancer models in cancer research based on culture methods for obtaining them and on subsequent differences in sphere biology: the multicellular tumor spheroid model, first described in the early 70s and obtained by culture of cancer cell lines under nonadherent conditions; tumorospheres, a model of cancer stem cell expansion established in a serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors; tissue-derived tumor spheres and organotypic multicellular spheroids, obtained by tumor tissue mechanical dissociation and cutting. In addition, we describe their applications to and interest in cancer research; in particular, we describe their contribution to chemoresistance, radioresistance, tumorigenicity, and invasion and migration studies. Although these models share a common 3D conformation, each displays its own intrinsic properties. Therefore, the most relevant spherical cancer model must be carefully selected, as a function of the study aim and cancer type.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 01/2015; 58(1). DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2014.12.004 · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells uniquely suited for cancer immunotherapy. They induce primary immune responses, potentiate the effector functions of previously primed T-lymphocytes, and orchestrate communication between innate and adaptive immunity. The remarkable diversity of cytokine activation regimens, DC maturation states, and antigen-loading strategies employed in current DC-based vaccine design reflect an evolving, but incomplete, understanding of optimal DC immunobiology. In the clinical realm, existing DC-based cancer immunotherapy efforts have yielded encouraging but inconsistent results. Despite recent U.S. Federal and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, clinically effective DC immunotherapy as monotherapy for a majority of tumors remains a distant goal. Recent work has identified strategies that may allow for more potent "next-generation" DC vaccines. Additionally, multimodality approaches incorporating DC-based immunotherapy may improve clinical outcomes.The Yale journal of biology and medicine 12/2014; 87(4):491-518.