NF-κB hyperactivation in tumor tissues allows tumor-selective reprogramming of the chemokine microenvironment to enhance the recruitment of cytolytic T effector cells.
ABSTRACT Tumor infiltration with effector CD8(+) T cells (T(eff)) predicts longer recurrence-free survival in many types of human cancer, illustrating the broad significance of T(eff) for effective immunosurveillance. Colorectal tumors with reduced accumulation of T(eff) express low levels of T(eff)-attracting chemokines such as CXCL10/IP10 and CCL5/RANTES. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of enhancing tumor production of T(eff)-attracting chemokines as a cancer therapeutic strategy using a tissue explant culture system to analyze chemokine induction in intact tumor tissues. In different tumor explants, we observed highly heterogeneous responses to IFNα or poly-I:C (a TLR3 ligand) when they were applied individually. In contrast, a combination of IFNα and poly-I:C uniformly enhanced the production of CXCL10 and CCL5 in all tumor lesions. Moreover, these effects could be optimized by the further addition of COX inhibitors. Applying this triple combination also uniformly suppressed the production of CCL22/MDC, a chemokine associated with infiltration of T regulatory cells (T(reg)). The T(eff)-enhancing effects of this treatment occurred selectively in tumor tissues, as compared with tissues derived from tumor margins. These effects relied on the increased propensity of tumor-associated cells (mostly fibroblasts and infiltrating inflammatory cells) to hyperactivate NF-κB and produce T(eff)-attracting chemokines in response to treatment, resulting in an enhanced ability of the treated tumors to attract T(eff) cells and reduced ability to attract T(reg) cells. Together, our findings suggest the feasibility of exploiting NF-κB hyperactivation in the tumor microenvironment to selectively enhance T(eff) entry into colon tumors.
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ABSTRACT: BCG is a prototypal cancer immunotherapeutic factor currently approved of bladder cancer. In attempt to further enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy of bladder cancer and, potentially, other malignancies, we evaluated the impact of BCG on local production of chemokines attracting the desirable effector CD8(+) T cells (CTLs) and undesirable myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSCs) and regulatory T(reg) cells, and the ability of bladder cancer tissues to attract CTLs. Freshly resected bladder cancer tissues were either analyzed immediately or cultured ex vivo in the absence or presence of the tested factors. The expression of chemokine genes, secretion of chemokines and their local sources in freshly harvested and ex vivo-treated tumor explants were analyzed by quantitative PCR (Taqman), ELISAs and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy. Migration of CTLs was evaluated ex vivo, using 24-transwell plates. Spearman correlation was used for correlative analysis, while paired Students T test or Wilcoxon was used for statistical analysis of the data. Bladder cancer tissues spontaneously expressed high levels of the granulocyte/MDSC-attractant CXCL8 and Treg-attractant CCL22, but only marginal levels of the CTL-attracting chemokines: CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10. Baseline CXCL10 showed strong correlation with local expression of CTL markers. Unexpectedly, BCG selectively induced only the undesirable chemokines, CCL22 and CXCL8, but had only marginal impact on CXCL10 production. In sharp contrast, the combination of IFNα and a TLR3 ligand, poly-I:C (but not the combinations of BCG with IFNα or BCG with poly-I:C), induced high levels of intra-tumoral production of CXCL10 and promoted CTL attraction. The combination of BCG with IFNα + poly-I:C regimen did not show additional advantage. The current data indicate that suboptimal ability of BCG to reprogram cancer-associated chemokine environment may be a factor limiting its therapeutic activity. Our observations that the combination of BCG with (or replacement by) IFNα and poly-I:C allows to reprogram bladder cancer tissues for enhanced CTL entry may provide for new methods of improving the effectiveness of immunotherapy of bladder cancer, helping to extend BCG applications to its more advanced forms, and, potentially, other diseases.12/2015; 3(1):6. DOI:10.1186/s40425-015-0050-8
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ABSTRACT: Chemokines were initially identified as bioactive substances, which control the trafficking of inflammatory cells including granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, chemokines have profound impacts on other types of cells associated with inflammatory responses, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These observations would implicate chemokines as master regulators in various inflammatory responses. Subsequent studies have further revealed that chemokines can regulate the movement of a wide variety of immune cells including lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. These features endow chemokines with crucial roles in immune responses. Furthermore, increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of cancer cells. It is widely acknowledged that cancer develops and progresses to invade and metastasize in continuous interaction with noncancerous cells present in cancer tissues, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The capacity of chemokines to regulate both cancerous and noncancerous cells highlights their crucial roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we will discuss the roles of chemokines in carcinogenesis and the possibility of chemokine targeting therapy for the treatment of cancer.Mediators of Inflammation 05/2014; 2014:170381. DOI:10.1155/2014/170381 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IL-33 is a multifunctional cytokine in immune regulation that activates Th1 cells, Th2 cells, CD8(+) T cells and NK cells. Our study showed that transgenic expression of IL-33 attenuated tumor metastasis in the B16 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastatic models. The percentages and cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells and their infiltration into the tumor tissues were significantly increased by the transgenic expression of IL-33 in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment with recombinant IL-33 could also increase the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells in vitro. In addition, depletion of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells using anti-CD8 or anti-asialo GM1 antibody abolished the pulmonary metastasis inhibition mediated by IL-33. Furthermore, IL-33 stimulated the activation of NF-κB and increased CD69 expression, which is a marker of the activated form of the two cell subsets, in CD8(+) T cells and NK cells. Our results suggest that IL-33 stimulated NF-κB signaling and promoted the proliferation, activation and infiltration of CD8(+) T cells and NK cells, which resulted in the inhibition of pulmonary metastasis in B16 melanoma and LLC mice models.Cancer letters 03/2013; 335(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.03.002 · 5.02 Impact Factor