Expression of microRNA miR-122 facilitates an efficient replication in nonhepatic cells upon infection with hepatitis C virus.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common etiologic agents of chronic liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, HCV infection is often associated with extrahepatic manifestations (EHM), including mixed cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, the mechanisms of cell tropism of HCV and HCV-induced EHM remain elusive, because in vitro propagation of HCV has been limited in the combination of cell culture-adapted HCV (HCVcc) and several hepatic cell lines. Recently, a liver-specific microRNA called miR-122 was shown to facilitate the efficient propagation of HCVcc in several hepatic cell lines. In this study, we evaluated the importance of miR-122 on the replication of HCV in nonhepatic cells. Among the nonhepatic cell lines expressing functional HCV entry receptors, Hec1B cells derived from human uterus exhibited a low level of replication of the HCV genome upon infection with HCVcc. Exogenous expression of miR-122 in several cells facilitates efficient viral replication but not production of infectious particles, probably due to the lack of hepatocytic lipid metabolism. Furthermore, expression of mutant miR-122 carrying a substitution in a seed domain was required for efficient replication of mutant HCVcc carrying complementary substitutions in miR-122-binding sites, suggesting that specific interaction between miR-122 and HCV RNA is essential for the enhancement of viral replication. In conclusion, although miR-122 facilitates efficient viral replication in nonhepatic cells, factors other than miR-122, which are most likely specific to hepatocytes, are required for HCV assembly.
Article: Compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus genotypes between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Differences in hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants of the highly conserved 5' untranslated region (UTR) have been observed between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The prevalence and the mechanisms of this compartmentalization are unknown. Plasma and PBMC HCV variants were compared by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and by cloning or by genotyping with a line probe assay (LiPA) in 116 chronically infected patients, including 44 liver transplant recipients. SSCP patterns differed between compartments in 43/109 analyzable patients (39%). Differences were significantly more frequent in patients with transplants (21/38 [55%] versus 22/71 [31%]; P < 0.01) and in those who acquired HCV through multiple transfusions before 1991 (15/20; 75%) or through drug injection (16/31; 52%) than in those infected through an unknown route (7/29; 24%) or through a single transfusion (5/29; 17%; P < 0.001). Cloning of the 5' UTR, LiPA analysis, and nonstructural region 5B sequencing revealed different genotypes in the two compartments from 10 patients (9%). In nine patients, the genotype detected in PBMC was not detected in plasma and was weak or undetectable in the liver in three cases. This genotypic compartmentalization persisted for years in three patients and after liver transplantation in two. The present study shows that a significant proportion of HCV-infected subjects harbor in their PBMC highly divergent variants which were likely acquired through superinfections.Journal of Virology 06/2005; 79(10):6349-57. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: The human scavenger receptor class B type I is a novel candidate receptor for the hepatitis C virus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We discovered that the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E2 binds to human hepatoma cell lines independently of the previously proposed HCV receptor CD81. Comparative binding studies using recombinant E2 from the most prevalent 1a and 1b genotypes revealed that E2 recognition by hepatoma cells is independent from the viral isolate, while E2-CD81 interaction is isolate specific. Binding of soluble E2 to human hepatoma cells was impaired by deletion of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), but the wild-type phenotype was recovered by introducing a compensatory mutation reported previously to rescue infectivity of an HVR1-deleted HCV infectious clone. We have identified the receptor responsible for E2 binding to human hepatic cells as the human scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). E2-SR-BI interaction is very selective since neither mouse SR-BI nor the closely related human scavenger receptor CD36, were able to bind E2. Finally, E2 recognition by SR-BI was competed out in an isolate-specific manner both on the hepatoma cell line and on the human SR-BI-transfected cell line by an anti-HVR1 monoclonal antibody.The EMBO Journal 11/2002; 21(19):5017-25. · 9.20 Impact Factor
Article: Double-stranded RNA activates novel factors that bind to the interferon-stimulated response element.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Infection of cells with adenovirus or transfection of cells with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates transcription of the alpha/beta interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Induction of ISG expression by adenovirus appears to be mediated through the same DNA target that is responsive to alpha/beta interferons, the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE). Transcriptional induction by alpha/beta interferons has been shown previously to be mediated by the activation of a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, ISGF3, that translocates to the nucleus and binds to the ISRE. However, ISG expression induced by adenovirus or dsRNA appears to be mediated by unique dsRNA-activated factors (DRAFs) that bind to the ISRE. The activation of these preexisting factors by dsRNA does not require new protein synthesis. Two DRAFs, DRAF1 and DRAF2, have been identified in our studies as ISRE-binding complexes in gel mobility shift assays. The ISRE-binding specificity of DRAF1 is similar to that of ISGF3; however, the ISRE-binding specificity of DRAF2 is distinct. Activation of DRAF1 and DRAF2 is independent of interferon action since it occurs in cells that are nonresponsive to interferon and in cells that lack the alpha/beta interferon locus. The activation pathway of DRAF1 and DRAF2 is blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and genistein. This is analogous to the interferon signal transduction pathway and suggests that phosphorylation, possibly tyrosine phosphorylation, is involved in activation of these factors.Molecular and Cellular Biology 07/1993; 13(6):3756-64. · 5.53 Impact Factor