Sentinel surveillance for pharyngeal chlamydia and gonorrhea among men who have sex with men--San Francisco, 2010.
ABSTRACT Although a potentially important route for transmission, limited data exist on the burden of pharyngeal chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) among men who have sex with men (MSM). We examined pharyngeal CT and GC among MSM screened in San Francisco in 2010.
MSM seeking services in a variety of clinical settings provided clinician-collected pharyngeal specimens that were tested using the APTIMA Combo 2 platform. The prevalence of pharyngeal CT and GC was estimated at 5 sentinel sites: the municipal STD clinic, a gay men's health clinic, an HIV care clinic, an HIV testing site, and primary care clinics supported by the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Positivity for each infection was calculated as the number of positive tests divided by the number of testers with corresponding confidence intervals (CI).
In 2010, a total of 12,454 pharyngeal CT specimens and 12,457 pharyngeal GC specimens were tested for an overall CT positivity of 1.69% (95% CI: 1.47-1.93) and GC positivity of 5.76% (95% CI: 5.36-6.19). At the 5 sentinel sites, pharyngeal CT positivity ranged from 1.10% (HIV testing site) to 2.28% (STD clinic); pharyngeal GC positivity ranged from 3.4% (HIV testing site) to 7.01% (STD clinic).
Sentinel surveillance data indicate that there is a substantial burden of pharyngeal CT and GC infections among MSM in San Francisco. Identification and treatment of pharyngeal infections could prevent ongoing transmission of these bacteria. Increasing access to nucleic acid amplification tests-based pharyngeal screening should be a public health priority.
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ABSTRACT: Various sexual practices like fellatio, cunnilingus, or anilingus (rimming) can cause both symptomatic and asymptomatic oral infections in both sexes. Clinically apparent lesions are found in primary, secondary, and tertiary syphilis, in acute HIV infection and the subsequent stage of immunodeficiency (opportunistic infections), as well as in herpes and human papilloma virus infections. Genital candidiasis also can be transmitted to the oral cavity. Depending on the infective agent transmitted, ulcerative, inflammatory or papillomatous lesions of the lips, tongue, mucous membranes and pharynx occur. Oropharyngeal infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis (Serovar D-K) can cause pharyngitis and tonsillitis with sore throat, but are completely asymptomatic in most cases. Asymptomatic infections are an important, but frequently overlooked reservoir for new infections. Systemic treatment of oral STI's usually is the same as that for anogenital infections. It can be accompanied by symptomatic topical therapy. When the tonsils and other difficult to reach tissues are infected, higher doses and an antibiotic with good tissue penetration are recommended.Der Hautarzt 08/2012; 63(9):710-5. DOI:10.1007/s00105-012-2352-9 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Guidelines recommend frequent screening of men who have sex with men (MSM) for sexually transmissible infections (STIs) but few interventions have demonstrated increased testing and detection of bacterial STIs among MSM in controlled studies. We used automated text message and email reminders generated by computer assisted self-interview (CASI) to remind MSM to retest for syphilis. We compared clinic visits, STI testing and detection rates over 12 month between men receiving reminders (reminder group) and men not offered the reminders (concurrent control group). Men who chose 3-monthly reminders had more clinic visits (median 3 vs 1) and higher testing rates for pharyngeal gonorrhoea (67.0% vs 33.6%), rectal gonorrhoea (62.7% vs 31.1%), urethral chlamydia (67.3% vs 39.3%), rectal chlamydia (62.9% vs 31.3%), syphilis (67.0% vs 39.3%) and HIV (64.9% vs 36.7%) (all p<0.001) than concurrent controls, within 12 months after their first visit. Also, men receiving reminders had a higher combined testing rate for all the aforementioned STIs at a same visit (55.7% vs 25.5%, p<0.001) compared with concurrent controls. This association remained after adjusting for differences in characteristics between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio:1.77, 95% confidence interval:1.51-2.08). Men receiving reminders also had a higher detection rate of: rectal gonorrhoea (3.7% vs 1.2%, p = 0.001), urethral chlamydia (3.1% vs 1.4%, p = 0.027), rectal chlamydia (6.6% vs 2.8%, p<0.001), and early, latent syphilis (1.7% vs 0.4%, p = 0.008) compared with concurrent controls. This is the first study to demonstate that a fully automated reminder system using CASI was associated with increased detection of bacterial STIs among MSM.PLoS ONE 04/2013; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061972 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can facilitate transmission of HIV. Men who have sex with men (MSM) may harbour infections at genital and extragenital sites. Data regarding extragenital GC and CT infections in military populations are lacking. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic GC and CT infection among this category of HIV-infected military personnel. Cross-sectional cohort study (pilot). Infectious diseases clinic at a single military treatment facility in San Diego, CA. Ninety-nine HIV-positive men were evaluated-79% men who had sex with men, mean age 31 years, 36% black and 33% married. Inclusion criteria: male, HIV-infected, Department of Defense beneficiary. Exclusion criteria: any symptom related to the urethra, pharynx or rectum. GC and CT screening results. Twenty-four per cent were infected with either GC or CT. Rectal swabs were positive in 18% for CT and 3% for GC; pharynx swabs were positive in 8% for GC and 2% for CT. Only one infection was detected in the urine (GC). Anal sex (p=0.04), male partner (OR 7.02, p=0.04) and sex at least once weekly (OR 3.28, p=0.04) were associated with infection. Associated demographics included age <35 years (OR 6.27, p=0.02), non-Caucasian ethnicity (p=0.03), <3 years since HIV diagnosis (OR 2.75, p=0.04) and previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) (OR 5.10, p=0.001). We found a high prevalence of extragenital GC/CT infection among HIV-infected military men. Only one infection was detected in the urine, signalling the need for aggressive three-site screening of MSM. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence in order to enhance health through comprehensive STI screening practices.BMJ Open 05/2013; 3(5). DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002775 · 2.06 Impact Factor