HIV and Hepatitis B Coinfection Among Perinatally HIV-infected Thai Adolescents

Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.14). 05/2012; 31(9):943-7. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31825eb0ad
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection and HBV seropositivity in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. A secondary objective was to describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with chronic HBV/HIV coinfection.
Multicenter cross-sectional study of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents aged 12-25 years. HBV surface antigen, surface antibody (anti-HBs) and core antibody (anti-HBc) were measured. Coinfection was defined as having persistently positive HBV surface antigen. Seroprotective antibody from immunization was defined as having anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/mL with negative anti-HBc. HBV DNA quantitation and rtM204V/I mutation analysis (lamivudine resistance-associated mutation) were performed in adolescents with chronic HBV infection.
From November 2010 to March 2011, 521 patients were enrolled. Mean (SD) of CD4 lymphocyte count was 685 (324) cells/μL. The prevalence of HBV/HIV coinfection was 3.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.9-5.2%). Protective antibody against HBV was found in 18% of population, and this was significantly higher among adolescents who received than those who did not receive HBV revaccination after receiving antiretroviral therapy (93% versus 6%, P < 0.01). Among adolescents with chronic HBV infection, 88% have received lamivudine; however, 69% have HBV DNA >10 copies/mL and 75% had the rtM204V/I mutation.
The prevalence of HBV coinfection in HIV-infected Thai adolescents was 3.3%. Most HIV-infected adolescents had no HBV protective antibody; therefore, revaccination with HBV vaccine is encouraged. The high prevalence of HBV-lamivudine resistance underscores the importance of HBV screening prior to antiretroviral therapy initiation to guide the selection of optimal regimen for coinfected children.

Download full-text


Available from: Yong Poovorawan, Jun 17, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized.
    05/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.5501/wjv.v4.i2.96
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We determined the prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database. Data from children initiated on cART between 2 and 18 years of age with baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) available before and at least once after cART initiation in TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. Prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction and biomarkers including the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and FIB4 index (a noninvasive panel to stage liver disease) were assessed. Data from 1930 children were included. Their median age was 6.9 years; 49% were male; 98% were perinatally infected and 94% were initiated on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase-based cART regimens. Before cART, the prevalence of ALT ≥3 times the upper limit of normal (×ULN) was 5.8%. There were 8.5% of children with aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index >1.5 (suggestive of liver fibrosis) and 2.7% with FIB4 index >1.3 (predictive of possible cirrhosis). Among the 1143 cases with normal baseline ALT (≤1×ULN), the incidence of ALT 3×ULN after cART was 1.19 of 1000 person-months (95% confidence interval: 0.93-1.51). Two of 350 with available tests (0.6%) met Hy's law (ALT >3×ULN and total bilirubin >2×ULN). By multivariate analysis, baseline hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL was a predictor of ALT >3×ULN, whereas age 5-9 years at cART initiation was protective for liver dysfunction. We demonstrated a low prevalence and incidence of liver dysfunction before and after cART initiation in children with normal baseline chemistries. In this population facing life-long cART, prospective surveillance for emergence of liver disease is warranted.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2015; 34(6):e153-8. DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000693 · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 02/2014; 33(2):177. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a01dfb · 3.14 Impact Factor