Seizure predictors and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in 440 patients.
ABSTRACT Seizures are a common symptom of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and uncontrolled epilepsy can considerably reduce patient quality of life. Potential risk factors for epilepsy in patients with AVMs are poorly understood, and the importance of achieving freedom from seizures in their surgical treatment remains underappreciated.
To characterize risks factors for preoperative seizures and factors associated with postoperative freedom from seizures in patients with surgically resected supratentorial AVMs.
We analyzed prospectively collected patient data for 440 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of supratentorial AVMs at our institution.
Among 440 patients with supratentorial AVMs, 130 (30%) experienced preoperative seizures, and 23 (18%) with seizures progressed to medically refractory epilepsy. Seizures were associated with a history of AVM hemorrhage (relative risk, 6.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.81-11.6), male sex (relative risk, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.39), and frontotemporal lesion location (relative risk, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.05-2.93). After resection, 96% of patients had a modified Engel class I outcome, characterized by freedom from seizures (80%) or only 1 postoperative seizure (16%; mean follow-up, 20.7 ± 2.3 months). Comparable rates of postoperative seizures were seen in patients with (7%) or without (3%) preoperative seizures. AVMs with deep artery perforators were significantly associated with postoperative seizures (hazard ratio, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.61-11.7).
In the microsurgical treatment of supratentorial AVMs, hemorrhage, male sex, and frontotemporal location are associated with higher rates of preoperative seizures, whereas deep artery perforators are associated with postoperative seizures. Achieving freedom from seizure is an important goal that can be achieved in the surgical treatment of AVMs because epilepsy can significantly diminish patient quality of life.
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ABSTRACT: Object Descriptions of temporal lobe arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are inconsistent. To standardize reporting, the authors blended existing descriptions in the literature into an intuitive classification with 5 anatomical subtypes: lateral, medial, basal, sylvian, and ventricular. The authors' surgical experience with temporal lobe AVMs was reviewed according to these subtypes. Methods Eighty-eight patients with temporal lobe AVMs were treated surgically. Results Lateral temporal lobe AVMs were the most common (58 AVMs, 66%). Thirteen AVMs (15%) were medial, 9 (10%) were basal, and 5 (6%) were sylvian. Ventricular AVMs were least common (3 AVMs, 3%). A temporal craniotomy based over the ear was used in 64%. Complete AVM resection was achieved in 82 patients (93%). Four patients (5%) died in the perioperative period (6 in all were lost to follow-up); 71 (87%) of the remaining 82 patients had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2); and 68 (83%) were unchanged or improved after surgery. Conclusions Categorization of temporal AVMs into subtypes can assist with surgical planning and also standardize reporting. Lateral AVMs are the easiest to expose surgically, with circumferential access to feeding arteries and draining veins at the AVM margins. Basal AVMs require a subtemporal approach, often with some transcortical dissection through the inferior temporal gyrus. Medial AVMs are exposed tangentially with an orbitozygomatic craniotomy and transsylvian dissection of anterior choroidal artery and posterior cerebral artery feeders in the medial cisterns. Medial AVMs posterior to the cerebral peduncle require transcortical approaches through the temporo-occipital gyrus. Sylvian AVMs require a wide sylvian fissure split and differentiation of normal arteries, terminal feeding arteries, and transit arteries. Ventricular AVMs require a transcortical approach through the inferior temporal gyrus that avoids the Meyer loop. Surgical results with temporal lobe AVMs are generally good, and classifying them does not offer any prediction of surgical risk.Journal of Neurosurgery 07/2013; Sep;119(3):616-28. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting approximately 1 % of the world's population. Drug-resistant focal epilepsies are potentially surgically remediable. Although epilepsy surgery is dramatically underutilized among medically refractory patients, there is an expanding collection of evidence supporting its efficacy which may soon compel a paradigm shift. Of note is that a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that early resection leads to considerably better seizure outcomes than continued medical therapy in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present review, we provide a timely update of seizure freedom rates and predictors in resective epilepsy surgery, organized by the distinct pathological entities most commonly observed. Class I evidence, meta-analyses, and individual observational case series are considered, including the experiences of both our institution and others. Overall, resective epilepsy surgery leads to seizure freedom in approximately two thirds of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and about one half of individuals with focal neocortical epilepsy, although only the former observation is supported by class I evidence. Two common modifiable predictors of postoperative seizure freedom are early operative intervention and, in the case of a discrete lesion, gross total resection. Evidence-based practice guidelines recommend that epilepsy patients who continue to have seizures after trialing two or more medication regimens should be referred to a comprehensive epilepsy center for multidisciplinary evaluation, including surgical consideration.Neurosurgical Review 02/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Object The risk of developing epilepsy after perinatal stroke, hypoxic/ischemic injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage is significant, and seizures may become medically refractory in approximately 25% of these patients. Surgical management can be difficult due to multilobar or bilateral cortical injury, nonfocal or poorly lateralizing video electroencephalography (EEG) findings, and limited functional reserve. In this study the authors describe the surgical approaches, seizure outcomes, and complications in patients with epilepsy due to vascular etiologies in the perinatal period and early infancy. Methods The records were analyzed of 19 consecutive children and adults with medically refractory epilepsy and evidence of perinatal arterial branch occlusions, hypoxic/ischemic insult, or hemorrhagic strokes, who underwent surgery at the Comprehensive Epilepsy Center of Beth Israel Medical Center and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center. Preoperative findings including MRI, video EEG, functional MRI, and neuropsychological testing were analyzed. The majority of patients underwent staged operations with invasive mapping, and all patients had either extra- or intraoperative functional mapping. Results In 7 patients with large porencephalic cysts due to major arterial branch occlusions, periinsular functional hemispherotomy was performed in 4 children, and in 3 patients, multilobar resections/disconnections were performed, with 1 patient undergoing additional resections 3 years after initial surgery due to recurrence of seizures. All of these patients have been seizure free (Engel Class IA) after a mean 4.5-year follow-up (range 15-77 months). Another 8 patients had intervascular border-zone ischemic infarcts and encephalomalacia, and in this cohort 2 hemispherotomies, 5 multilobar resections/disconnections, and 1 focal cortical resection were performed. Seven of these patients remain seizure free (Engel Class IA) after a mean 4.5-year follow-up (range 9-94 months), and 1 patient suffered a single seizure after 2.5 years of seizure freedom (Engel Class IB, 33-month follow-up). In the final 4 patients with vascular malformation-associated hemorrhagic or ischemic infarction in the perinatal period, a hemispherotomy was performed in 1 case, multilobar resections in 2 cases, and in 1 patient a partial temporal lobectomy was performed, followed 6 months later by a complete temporal and occipital lobectomy due to ongoing seizures. All of these patients have had seizure freedom (Engel Class IA) with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years (range 10-80 months). Complications included transient monoparesis or hemiparesis in 3 patients, transient mutism in 1 patient, infection in 1 patient, and a single case of permanent distal lower-extremity weakness. Transient mood disorders (depression and anxiety) were observed in 2 patients and required medical/therapeutic intervention. Conclusions Epilepsy surgery is effective in controlling medically intractable seizures after perinatal vascular insults. Seizure foci tend to be widespread and rarely limited to the area of injury identified through neuroimaging, with invasive monitoring directing multilobar resections in many cases. Long-term functional outcomes have been good in these patients, with significant improvements in independence, quality of life, cognitive development, and motor skills, despite transient postoperative monoparesis or hemiparesis and occasional mood disorders.Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 05/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor