Nuclear localization of actin requires AC102 in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus-infected cells.
ABSTRACT Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus requires nuclear actin for progeny virus production and thereby encodes viral products that ensure actin's translocation to and retention within the nucleus. Current evidence suggests that the ie0-ie1 gene complex along with five nuclear localization of actin (NLA) genes are sufficient for NLA in transient transfection experiments. Here we report that, during infection, only one of the five NLA genes, Ac102, was essential for NLA, and that AC102 had at least one other activity critical for budded virus (BV) production. Viral deletion mutants in the other four NLA genes were viable, with only two having replication phenotypes different from that of the wild type. Infection with AcΔpe38 revealed a delay in both BV production and NLA. Infection with AcΔ152 revealed a delay in BV production, but no corresponding delay in NLA. Infection with either AcΔpe38 or AcΔ152 resulted in slightly reduced BV titres. Deletion of Ac004 or he65 had no impact on actin translocation kinetics, timing of BV production or BV titres. These results implicate AC102 as a key player in baculovirus manipulation of actin.