Prognosis of elderly patients subjected to mechanical ventilation in the ICU.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prognosis of mechanically ventilated elderly patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). DESIGN AND SCOPE: Sub-analysis of a prospective multicenter observational cohort study conducted over a period of two years in 13 medical-surgical ICUs in Spain. PATIENTS: Adult patients who required mechanical ventilation (MV) for longer than 24hours. INTERVENTIONS: None. STUDY VARIABLES: Demographic data, APACHE II, SOFA, reason for MV, comorbidity, functional condition, reintubation, duration of MV, tracheotomy, ICU mortality, in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1661 patients were recruited. Males accounted for 67.9% (n=1127), with a mean age of 62.1±16.2 years. APACHE II: 20.3±7.5. Total SOFA: 8.4±3.5. Four hundred and twenty-three patients (25.4%) were ≥ 75 years of age. Comorbidity and functional condition rates were poorer in these patients (p<0.001 for both variables). Mortality in the ICU was higher in the elderly patients (33.6%) than in the younger subjects (25.9%) (p=0.002). Also, in-hospital mortality was higher in those ≥ 75 years of age. No differences in duration of MV, prevalence of tracheostomy or reintubation incidence were found. Regarding the indication for MV, only the patient ≥ 75 years of age with pneumonia, sepsis or trauma had a higher in-ICU mortality than the younger patients (46.3% vs 33.1%, p=0.006; 55% vs 25.8%, p=0.002; 63.6% vs 4.5%, p<0,001, respectively). No differences were found referred to other reasons for MV. CONCLUSION: Older patients (≥ 75 years) have significantly higher in-ICU and in-hospital mortality than younger patients without differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation. Differences in mortality were at the expense of pneumonia, sepsis and trauma.