Response to combined antiretroviral therapy according to gender and origin in a cohort of naïve HIV-infected patients: GESIDA-5808 study.
ABSTRACT We analyzed differences in response to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) according to sex and geographic origin in a retrospective comparative study of Spanish-born and immigrant patients initiating cART.
The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTF), defined as virological failure, death, opportunistic infection, interruption of cART, or loss to follow-up. Late diagnosis was defined as a CD4+ cell count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 and/or AIDS at initiation of cART. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression.
We followed 1,090 patients, of whom 318 were women (45.6% immigrant women [IW]). At initiation of treatment, women had a higher CD4+ count than men (217 vs 190 cells/mm3), a lower viral load (4.7 vs 5 log), and fewer were late starters (49% vs 59%). The adjusted risk of TTF between women and men was not significantly different (hazard ratio [HR], 1.10; 95% CI, 0.79-1.53). TTF was shorter among IW than Spanish-born women (124 weeks [95% CI, 64-183] vs 151 [95% CI, 127-174]) and loss to follow-up was double that of Spanish-born women (25.5% vs 11.6%).
Although response to cART was similar for both sexes, men started treatment later. IW were more frequently lost to follow-up and switched treatment. Measures to improve medical follow-up after initiation of cART should be promoted among this minority group.