The reported actual compliance for severe sepsis bundles was very low, suggesting the presence of barriers to their implementation. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of full-time intensivist and nurse-to-patient ratio in Korean intensive care units (ICUs) on the implementation of the severe sepsis bundles and clinical outcome.
A total of 251 patients with severe sepsis were enrolled from 28 adult ICUs during the July, 2009. We recorded the organizational characteristics of ICUs, patients' characteristics and clinical outcomes, and the compliance for severe sepsis bundles.
Complete compliance with the resuscitation bundle and totally complete compliance with all element targets for resuscitation and management bundles were significantly higher in the ICU with full-time intensivist and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 (P < .05). The hazard ratio (HR) for hospital mortality was independently reduced by the presence of full-time intensivist (HR, 0.456; 95% confidence interval, 0.223-0.932), and a nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:2 was independently associated with a lower 28-day mortality (HR, 0.459; 95% confidence interval, 0.211-0.998).
The full-time intensivist and the nurse-to-patient ratio had a substantial influence on the implementation of severe sepsis bundles and the mortalities of patients with severe sepsis.
"Only 7.7% of adult ICUs were staffed by physician specialists for 5 days each week. The outcome of severe sepsis and compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign in Korea was poor in ICUs without fulltime intensivists (1). In several studies that evaluated the association between ICU physician staffing and patient outcomes, higher staffing of intensivists was associated with lower hospital mortality and morbidity (13-17). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a lack of information on critical care in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the current status of Korean intensive care units (ICUs), focusing on the organization, characteristics of admitted patients, and nurse and physician staffing. Critical care specialists in charge of all 105 critical care specialty training hospitals nationwide completed a questionnaire survey. Among the ICUs, 56.4% were located in or near the capital city. Only 38 ICUs (17.3%) had intensive care specialists with a 5-day work week. The average daytime nurse-to-patient ratio was 1:2.7. Elderly people ≥ 65 yr of age comprised 53% of the adult patients. The most common reasons for admission to adult ICUs were respiratory insufficiency and postoperative management. Nurse and physician staffing was insufficient for the appropriate critical care in many ICUs. Staffing was worse in areas outside the capital city. Much effort, including enhanced reimbursement of critical care costs, must be made to improve the quality of critical care at the national level.
Journal of Korean medical science 03/2014; 29(3):431-7. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.3.431 · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Care bundles have proven to be effective in improving clinical outcomes. It is not known which strategies are the most effective to implement care bundles. A systematic review was conducted to determine the strategies used to implement care bundles in adult intensive care units and to assess the effects of these strategies when implementing bundles.
The databases MEDLINE/PubMed, Ovid/Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched for eligible studies until January 31, 2015. Studies with (non)randomised designs on central line, ventilator or sepsis bundles were included if implementation strategies and bundle compliance were reported. Methodological quality was assessed by using the Downs and Black checklist. Data extraction and quality assessments were independently performed by two reviewers.
In total, 1533 records were screened and 47 studies were finally included. In 49 %, pre/post designs were used, 38 % prospective cohorts, and the remaining studies used retrospective designs (6 %), interrupted time series (4 %) and longitudinal designs (2 %). The methodological quality was classified as 'fair' in 77 %, and the remaining as 'good' (13 %) and 'poor' (11 %). The most frequently used strategies were education (86 %), reminders (71 %) and audit and feedback (63 %). Our results show that compliance is influenced by multiple factors, i.e. types and numbers of elements varied and different compliance measurements were reported. Furthermore, compliance was calculated within different time frames. Also, detailed information about compliance, such as numerators and denominators, was not reported. Therefore, recalculation of consistent monthly compliance levels was not possible.
The three most frequently used strategies were education, reminders and audit and feedback. We conclude that the heterogeneity among the included studies was high due to the variety in study designs, number and types of elements and types of compliance measurements. Due to the heterogeneity of the data and the poor quality of the studies, conclusions about which strategy results in the highest levels of bundle compliance could not be determined. We strongly recommend that studies in quality improvement should be reported in a formalised way in order to be able to compare research findings. It is imperative that authors follow the standards for quality improvement reporting excellence (SQUIRE) guidelines whenever they report quality improvement studies.
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