Antibiotics used in nonbacterial dermatologic conditions

Center for Clinical Studies, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Dermatologic Therapy (Impact Factor: 1.6). 01/2012; 25(1):38-54. DOI: 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2012.01496.x
Source: PubMed


The majority of nonbacterial dermatological conditions treated with antibiotics benefit from the anti-inflammatory properties of these medications, usually dapsone or tetracycline. Many other antimicrobials are used to treat noninfectious conditions. The following chapter is an overview of select noninfectious dermatological conditions for which antibiotics are used, with a focus on the most common antibiotics used for their nonantimicrobial properties.

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    ABSTRACT: Dapsone has had a long history of use in medicine dating back to the 1930s although the compound was originally discovered in 1908. The drug has been successfully deployed in the treatment of a range of conditions including leprosy, malaria, dermatitis herpetiformis, tuberculosis, and opportunistic infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Dapsone possesses both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, and this dual action was utilized in the management of moderate to severe acne. However, the adverse effect profile of the drug limited its usefulness as an anti-acne therapy, and Dapsone use was superseded by isotretinoin during the 1980s. Dapsone was resurrected as an acne therapy in 2008 after the introduction of Aczone, a topical formulation of the drug with fewer side effects and was deemed suitable for patients with mild-to-moderate disease. Aczone is currently only available in the United States and Canada. Although clinical studies suggest that the drug is effective, the lack of comparative studies with established therapies makes the position of Aczone in the management of acne more difficult to define.
    Journal of the Dermatology Nurses' Association 01/2013; 5(6):316-319. DOI:10.1097/JDN.0000000000000008
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    ABSTRACT: This review considers available evidence that some antibiotics have ancillary neuroprotective effects. Notably, β-lactam antibiotics are believed to increase the expression of glutamate transporter GLT1, potentially relieving the neurological excitotoxicity that characterizes disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Minocycline has shown promise in reducing the severity of a number of neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis, most likely by reducing apoptosis and the expression of inflammatory mediators in the brain. Rapamycin inhibits the activity of a serine/threonine protein kinase that has a role in the pathogenesis of numerous neurologic diseases. Herein we examine the unique neuroprotective aspects of these drugs originally developed as anti-infective agents.
    Neuropharmacology 06/2013; 73. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.059 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dapsone is a synthetic sulfone that is used as an antibiotic in humans and animals to prevent and treat diseases including leprosy, tuberculosis, malaria, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS) patients as well as in anti-inflammatory conditions, such as dermatitis herpetiformis. However, this drug is also associated with several adverse effects, including dose-related hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hypersensitivity syndrome, sulfone syndrome, and others. Of these effects, methemoglobinemia is the most common side effect of dapsone, which leads to functional anemia and cellular hypoxia with symptoms of cyanosis, headache, fatigue, tachycardia, weakness, and dizziness. Thus, this review summarizes relevant information on the structure, mechanism of action, clinical indication, and adverse reactions of dapsone.
    Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 10/2014; 25(10). DOI:10.5935/0103-5053.20140168 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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