Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 05/2012; 366(20):1891-904. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear.
We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline.
During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline.
In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).

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Available from: Neal Freedman, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Observationally, caffeine (or, more commonly, coffee) consumption has been shown to be associated with a number of health outcomes [22]. Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that long-term coffee consumption may in fact be protective against cardiovascular disease [22], [23] and lower the risk of all-cause mortality [24]. Coffee consumption also shows an inverse association with diabetes, although this may be due to antioxidant compounds within coffee rather than caffeine itself [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103448. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103448 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In fact, coffee intake may improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, depression, Alzheimer's and other diseases of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease (Huxley et al., 2009; O'Keefe et al., 2013). Moreover, coffee consumption has shown inverse association with death linked to heart disease and respiratory disease, stroke, injuries, accidents, diabetes and infections (Freedman et al., 2012). Coffee fruit is a drupe with an outer skin or pericarp, usually green in unripe and red-violet or deep red in ripe fruits (even yellow or orange in particular cultivars). "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffea arabica silverskin (CSS), the inner fruit layer surrounding coffee beans, was analyzed for its (poly)phenolic and caffeine content by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and evaluated for its antioxidant properties by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP methods. The most abundant quantified phenolics were caffeoylquinic acids, with the 5- and 3-isomers being the most relevant (199 mg/100 g and 148 mg/100 g, respectively). The three caffeoylquinic acid isomers reached a total concentration of 432 mg/100 g, corresponding to 74% of the total chlorogenic acids detected in CSS. The level of the three feruloylquinic acids detected was 143 mg/100 g, corresponding to 23%, and the two identified coumaroylquinic acids plus the two caffeoylquinic acid lactones were only marginally contributing to the final figure (only 3% of total hydroxycinnamates). No unconjugated phenolic add was detected. Caffeine content in CSS was equal to 10 mg/g of product, 3.5 times lower than most coffee brews. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of CSS was 139 mmol Fe2 /kg, a value similar to those of valuable sources of food antioxidants like dark chocolate, herbs and spices. Besides its potential as a food supplement, CSS may represent an innovative functional ingredient exploitable to increase the TAC of a wide range of food products.
    Food Research International 07/2014; 61:196-201. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2013.10.047 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    • "This report is a follow up experiment to our recently published data on the effects of stress and caffeine on salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in healthy young men [1]. The health effects of caffeine and/or coffee consumption continue to be debated (e.g., [2,3]). Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that releases catecholamines and glucocorticoids and elevates blood pressure (see [4] for review; [5]). "
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    ABSTRACT: To follow up on a recent report from our lab [Hum Psychopharmacol 25:359-367, 2010.] we examined the effects of caffeine on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) activity in response to an engaging, non-stressful task in healthy young males (age 18-30 yrs) who consumed caffeine on a daily basis. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subjects design, 45 men received either placebo, 200 mg or 400 mg of caffeine (Vivarin(R)). Participants then rested for 20 minutes, and performed a 20-minute computerized air traffic controller-like task that was cognitively engaging but not stressful. Saliva samples (assayed for sAA and cortisol), blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before (baseline) and 15 minutes after the computerized task. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and sAA activity increased across the laboratory session (F's > 9.20, p's < 0.05); salivary cortisol levels decreased (F = 16.17, p < 0.05). There were no main effects for caffeine administration on sAA, salivary cortisol, or cardiovascular measures, and caffeine did not interact with the task to alter these measures. Laboratory administered caffeine does not alter sAA activity, even when sAA activity is stimulated by participating in a cognitively engaging task. These data demonstrate that caffeine administration does not affect sAA activity, at least in healthy young men who regularly consume caffeine. Results support recent findings that basal caffeine levels in habitual caffeine users are not associated with basal sAA activity and that daily caffeine intake and diurnal sAA activity are not related.
    BMC Research Notes 01/2014; 7(1):30. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-30
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