Article

Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 05/2012; 366(20):1891-904. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but the association between coffee consumption and the risk of death remains unclear.
We examined the association of coffee drinking with subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 229,119 men and 173,141 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study who were 50 to 71 years of age at baseline. Participants with cancer, heart disease, and stroke were excluded. Coffee consumption was assessed once at baseline.
During 5,148,760 person-years of follow-up between 1995 and 2008, a total of 33,731 men and 18,784 women died. In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer. Results were similar in subgroups, including persons who had never smoked and persons who reported very good to excellent health at baseline.
In this large prospective study, coffee consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Whether this was a causal or associational finding cannot be determined from our data. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics.).

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    • "In fact, coffee intake may improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus decreasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, depression, Alzheimer's and other diseases of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease (Huxley et al., 2009; O'Keefe et al., 2013). Moreover, coffee consumption has shown inverse association with death linked to heart disease and respiratory disease, stroke, injuries, accidents, diabetes and infections (Freedman et al., 2012). Coffee fruit is a drupe with an outer skin or pericarp, usually green in unripe and red-violet or deep red in ripe fruits (even yellow or orange in particular cultivars). "
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    • "In addition, the recent association between coffee drinking and lower risk of death by cardiovascular disease and diabetes maybe explained in part by an increase of several SM species during coffee consumption (Freedman et al. 2012; Altmaier et al. 2009). Although the health implications of higher levels of SM species in the offspring of long-living individuals remains to be investigated, it is possible that higher levels of SM species in female offspring of nonagenarians are a consequence of decreased SMase activity maybe decreasing the risk of ceramide-related diseases . "
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    • "Epidemiologic studies have indicated that regular coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for CVD [3] [12] [13]. However, the coffee compounds responsible for the suggestive TAFC contributed to the study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation , and wrote the manuscript. "
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