The Development of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ)

Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Psychology, Budapest, Hungary.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2012; 7(5):e36417. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036417
Source: PubMed


Online gaming has become increasingly popular. However, this has led to concerns that these games might induce serious problems and/or lead to dependence for a minority of players.
The aim of this study was to uncover and operationalize the components of problematic online gaming.
A total of 3415 gamers (90% males; mean age 21 years), were recruited through online gaming websites. A combined method of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied. Latent profile analysis was applied to identify persons at-risk.
EFA revealed a six-factor structure in the background of problematic online gaming that was also confirmed by a CFA. For the assessment of the identified six dimensions--preoccupation, overuse, immersion, social isolation, interpersonal conflicts, and withdrawal--the 18-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) proved to be exceedingly suitable. Based on the latent profile analysis, 3.4% of the gamer population was considered to be at high risk, while another 15.2% was moderately problematic.
The POGQ seems to be an adequate measurement tool for the differentiated assessment of gaming related problems on six subscales.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark D Griffiths, Mar 04, 2014
    • "We also added a question about craving from the AUDIT. In line with Demetrovics et al. (2012), we did not include " mood modification " as a component of the GAIT. Based on the current measurements used for gaming, we combined the different dimensions of the latent structure of " gaming addiction " that we aimed to screen. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents – the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.
    Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 01/2015; 56(4). DOI:10.1111/sjop.12196 · 1.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In addition to these six criteria, the DSM–5 included three other criteria that are diagnostic indicators of dysfunction: deception (e.g., Demetrovics et al., 2012; Gentile et al., 2011), displacement (e.g., Huang, Wang, Qian, Zhong, & Tao, 2007; Rehbein, Kleimann, & Mö␤le, 2010), and conflict (e.g., Lemmens et al., 2009; Young, 1996). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM-5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13-40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM-5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 01/2015; 27(2). DOI:10.1037/pas0000062 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Internet gaming disorder (IGD) also can be defined as a type of behavioral addiction (Cho et al., 2014; Demetrovics et al., 2012; Grant et al., 2010; Petry & O'Brien, 2013). IGD "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The aim of the present study was to test the impulsivities and compulsivities of behavioral addictions, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and gambling disorder (GD), by directly comparing them with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a healthy control (HC) group. Methods: We enrolled male patients who were diagnosed with IGD, GD or AUD, with 15 patients per group, as well as 15 HCs. Trait impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11). The stop-signal test (SST) from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was used to assess the patients’ abilities to inhibit prepotent responses. Compulsivity was measured using the intra–extra dimensional set shift (IED) test from the CANTAB. The Trail Making Test (TMT) was also used in this study. Results: The IGD and AUD groups scored significantly higher on the BIS-11 as a whole than did the HC group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The IGD and AUD groups also scored significantly higher on the BIS-11 as a whole than did the GD group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). In addition, the GDgroup made significantly more errors (p = 0.017 and p = 0.022, respectively) and more individuals failed to achieve criterion on the IED test compared with the IGD and HC groups (p = 0.018 and p = 0.017, respectively). Discussion: These findings may aid in the understanding of not only the differences in categorical aspects between individuals with IGD and GD but also in impulsivity–compulsivity dimensional domains. Conclusion: Additional studies are needed to elucidate the neurocognitive characteristics of behavioral addictive disorders in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity.
    Journal of Behavioural Addictions 12/2014; 3(4):246-53. DOI:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.4.6 · 1.87 Impact Factor
Show more