The Development of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ)

Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Psychology, Budapest, Hungary.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 05/2012; 7(5):e36417. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036417
Source: PubMed


Online gaming has become increasingly popular. However, this has led to concerns that these games might induce serious problems and/or lead to dependence for a minority of players.
The aim of this study was to uncover and operationalize the components of problematic online gaming.
A total of 3415 gamers (90% males; mean age 21 years), were recruited through online gaming websites. A combined method of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied. Latent profile analysis was applied to identify persons at-risk.
EFA revealed a six-factor structure in the background of problematic online gaming that was also confirmed by a CFA. For the assessment of the identified six dimensions--preoccupation, overuse, immersion, social isolation, interpersonal conflicts, and withdrawal--the 18-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) proved to be exceedingly suitable. Based on the latent profile analysis, 3.4% of the gamer population was considered to be at high risk, while another 15.2% was moderately problematic.
The POGQ seems to be an adequate measurement tool for the differentiated assessment of gaming related problems on six subscales.

Download full-text


Available from: Mark D Griffiths, Mar 04, 2014
1 Follower
53 Reads
    • "The percentage, mean, and standard deviation of parent/guardian's response to questions measuring PMM are presented in Table 1 (items and construct organised based on highest to lowest mean). Problematic gaming: The Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) was used to assess problematic gaming (Demetrovics et al. 2012). They developed 32 items of the POGQ through a comprehensive review of literature and interviews with online gamers, which 15 questions out of 32 questions found to be reliable (Cronbach alpha: 0.9). "
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11469-015-9561-2 · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In addition to these six criteria, the DSM–5 included three other criteria that are diagnostic indicators of dysfunction: deception (e.g., Demetrovics et al., 2012; Gentile et al., 2011), displacement (e.g., Huang, Wang, Qian, Zhong, & Tao, 2007; Rehbein, Kleimann, & Mö␤le, 2010), and conflict (e.g., Lemmens et al., 2009; Young, 1996). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in the appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The main aim of the current study was to test the reliability and validity of 4 survey instruments to measure IGD on the basis of the 9 criteria from the DSM-5: a long (27-item) and short (9-item) polytomous scale and a long (27-item) and short (9-item) dichotomous scale. The psychometric properties of these scales were tested among a representative sample of 2,444 Dutch adolescents and adults, ages 13-40 years. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the structural validity (i.e., the dimensional structure) of all scales was satisfactory. Both types of assessment (polytomous and dichotomous) were also reliable (i.e., internally consistent) and showed good criterion-related validity, as indicated by positive correlations with time spent playing games, loneliness, and aggression and negative correlations with self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction. The dichotomous 9-item IGD scale showed solid psychometric properties and was the most practical scale for diagnostic purposes. Latent class analysis of this dichotomous scale indicated that 3 groups could be discerned: normal gamers, risky gamers, and disordered gamers. On the basis of the number of people in this last group, the prevalence of IGD among 13- through 40-year-olds in the Netherlands is approximately 4%. If the DSM-5 threshold for diagnosis (experiencing 5 or more criteria) is applied, the prevalence of disordered gamers is more than 5%. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Assessment 01/2015; 27(2). DOI:10.1037/pas0000062 · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Internet gaming disorder (IGD) also can be defined as a type of behavioral addiction (Cho et al., 2014; Demetrovics et al., 2012; Grant et al., 2010; Petry & O'Brien, 2013). IGD "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The aim of the present study was to test the impulsivities and compulsivities of behavioral addictions, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and gambling disorder (GD), by directly comparing them with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and a healthy control (HC) group. Methods: We enrolled male patients who were diagnosed with IGD, GD or AUD, with 15 patients per group, as well as 15 HCs. Trait impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11). The stop-signal test (SST) from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) was used to assess the patients’ abilities to inhibit prepotent responses. Compulsivity was measured using the intra–extra dimensional set shift (IED) test from the CANTAB. The Trail Making Test (TMT) was also used in this study. Results: The IGD and AUD groups scored significantly higher on the BIS-11 as a whole than did the HC group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The IGD and AUD groups also scored significantly higher on the BIS-11 as a whole than did the GD group (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). In addition, the GDgroup made significantly more errors (p = 0.017 and p = 0.022, respectively) and more individuals failed to achieve criterion on the IED test compared with the IGD and HC groups (p = 0.018 and p = 0.017, respectively). Discussion: These findings may aid in the understanding of not only the differences in categorical aspects between individuals with IGD and GD but also in impulsivity–compulsivity dimensional domains. Conclusion: Additional studies are needed to elucidate the neurocognitive characteristics of behavioral addictive disorders in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity.
    Journal of Behavioural Addictions 12/2014; 3(4):246-53. DOI:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.4.6 · 1.87 Impact Factor
Show more