Article

Congenital Heart Disease-Causing Gata4 Mutation Displays Functional Deficits In Vivo

Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research and the Heart Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
PLoS Genetics (Impact Factor: 8.17). 05/2012; 8(5):e1002690. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002690
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Defects of atrial and ventricular septation are the most frequent form of congenital heart disease, accounting for almost 50% of all cases. We previously reported that a heterozygous G296S missense mutation of GATA4 caused atrial and ventricular septal defects and pulmonary valve stenosis in humans. GATA4 encodes a cardiac transcription factor, and when deleted in mice it results in cardiac bifida and lethality by embryonic day (E)9.5. In vitro, the mutant GATA4 protein has a reduced DNA binding affinity and transcriptional activity and abolishes a physical interaction with TBX5, a transcription factor critical for normal heart formation. To characterize the mutation in vivo, we generated mice harboring the same mutation, Gata4 G295S. Mice homozygous for the Gata4 G295S mutant allele have normal ventral body patterning and heart looping, but have a thin ventricular myocardium, single ventricular chamber, and lethality by E11.5. While heterozygous Gata4 G295S mutant mice are viable, a subset of these mice have semilunar valve stenosis and small defects of the atrial septum. Gene expression studies of homozygous mutant mice suggest the G295S protein can sufficiently activate downstream targets of Gata4 in the endoderm but not in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte proliferation deficits and decreased cardiac expression of CCND2, a member of the cyclin family and a direct target of Gata4, were found in embryos both homozygous and heterozygous for the Gata4 G295S allele. To further define functions of the Gata4 G295S mutation in vivo, compound mutant mice were generated in which specific cell lineages harbored both the Gata4 G295S mutant and Gata4 null alleles. Examination of these mice demonstrated that the Gata4 G295S protein has functional deficits in early myocardial development. In summary, the Gata4 G295S mutation functions as a hypomorph in vivo and leads to defects in cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryogenesis, which may contribute to the development of congenital heart defects in humans.

0 Followers
 · 
210 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear. Methods and Results Pregnant mice were gavaged with ethanol or saline. Fetal mouse hearts were collected for analysis. The results of ethanol fed groups showed that global HAT activity was unusually high in the hearts of fetal mice while global HDAC activity remained unchanged. Binding of P300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, but not GCN5, were increased on the Gata4 promoter relative to the saline treated group. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT were observed in these hearts. Treatment with the pan-histone acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding of P300, PCAF to the Gata4 promoter and reversed H3K9 hyperacetylation in the presence of ethanol. Interestingly, anacardic acid attenuated over-expression of Gata4, α-MHC and cTnT in fetal mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Conclusions Our results suggest that P300 and PCAF may be critical regulatory factors that mediate Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol exposure. Alternatively, P300, PCAF and Gata4 may coordinate over-expression of cardiac downstream genes in mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Anacardic acid may thus protect against ethanol-induced Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT over-expression by inhibiting the binding of P300 and PCAF to the promoter region of these genes.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104135. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104135 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: GATA4-6 transcription factors regulate numerous aspects of development and homeostasis in multiple tissues of mesodermal and endodermal origin. In the heart, the best studied of these factors, GATA4, has multiple distinct roles in cardiac specification, differentiation, morphogenesis, hypertrophy and survival. To improve understanding of how GATA4 achieves its numerous roles in the heart, here we have focused on the carboxy-terminal domain and the residues required for interaction with cofactors FOG2 and Tbx5. We present evidence that the carboxy terminal region comprised of amino acids 362-400 is essential for mediating cardiogenesis in Xenopus pluripotent explants and embryos. In contrast, the same region is not required for endoderm-inducing activity of GATA4. Further evidence is presented that the carboxy terminal cardiogenic region of GATA4 does not operate as a generic transcriptional activator. Potential mechanism of action of the carboxy terminal end of GATA4 is provided by the results showing physical and functional interaction with CDK4, including the enhancement of cardiogenic activity of GATA4 by CDK4. These results establish CDK4 as a GATA4 partner in cardiogenesis. The interactions of GATA4 with its other well described cofactors Tbx5 and FOG2 are known to be involved in heart morphogenesis, but their requirement for cardiac differentiation is unknown. We report that the mutations that disrupt interactions of GATA4 with Tbx5 and FOG2, G295S and V217G, respectively, do not impair cardiogenic activity of GATA4. These findings add support to the view that distinct roles of GATA4 in the heart are mediated by different determinants of the protein. Finally, we show that the rat GATA4 likely induces cardiogenesis cell autonomously or directly as it does not require activity of endodermal transcription factor Sox17, a GATA4 target gene that induces cardiogenesis non-cell autonomously.
    Mechanisms of Development 09/2014; 134. DOI:10.1016/j.mod.2014.09.001 · 2.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aortic valve disease (AVD) and aortopathy are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, representing a significant cardiovascular healthcare burden worldwide. These mechanobiological structures are morphogenetically related and function in unison from embryonic development through mature adult tissue homeostasis, serving both coordinated and distinct roles. In addition to sharing common developmental origins, diseases of the aortic valve and proximal thoracic aorta often present together clinically. Current research efforts are focused on identifying etiologic factors and elucidating pathogenesis, including genetic predisposition, maladaptive cell-matrix remodeling processes, and hemodynamic and biomechanical perturbations. Here, we review the impact of these processes as they pertain to translational research efforts, emphasizing the overlapping relationship of these two disease processes. The successful application of new therapeutic strategies and novel tissue bioprostheses for AVD and/or aortopathy will require an understanding and integration of molecular and biomechanical processes for both diseases.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 12/2014; 7(9):823-46. DOI:10.1007/s12265-014-9602-4 · 2.69 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
74 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014