Mediation of the antiapoptotic activity of Bcl-xL protein upon interaction with VDAC1 protein.
ABSTRACT The mitochondrial protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), is implicated in the control of apoptosis, including via its interaction with the pro- and antiapoptotic proteins. We previously demonstrated the direct interaction of Bcl2 with VDAC, leading to reduced channel conductance. VDAC1-based peptides interacted with Bcl2 to prevent its antiapoptotic activity. Here, using a variety of approaches, we show the interaction of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, with VDAC1 and reveal that this interaction mediates Bcl-xL protection against apoptosis. C-terminally truncated Bcl-xL(Δ21) interacts with purified VDAC1, as revealed by microscale thermophoresis and as reflected in the reduced channel conductivity of bilayer-reconstituted VDAC1. Overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented staurosporine-induced apoptosis in cells expressing native VDAC1 but not certain VDAC1 mutants. Having identified mutations in VDAC1 that interfere with the Bcl-xL interaction, certain peptides representing VDAC1 sequences, including the N-terminal domain, were designed and generated as recombinant and synthetic peptides. The VDAC1 N-terminal region and two internal sequences were found to bind specifically, and in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, to immobilized Bcl-xL(Δ21), as revealed by surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, expression of the recombinant peptides in cells overexpressing Bcl-xL prevented protection offered by the protein against staurosporine-induced apoptosis. These results point to Bcl-xL acting as antiapoptotic protein, promoting tumor cell survival via binding to VDAC1. These findings suggest that interfering with Bcl-xL binding to the mitochondria by VDAC1-based peptides may serve to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and to potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
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ABSTRACT: In non-apoptotic cells, Bak constitutively resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. In contrast, Bax is in a dynamic equilibrium between the cytosol and mitochondria, and is commonly predominant in the cytosol. In response to an apoptotic stimulus, Bax and Bak change conformation, leading to Bax accumulation at mitochondria and Bak/Bax oligomerization to form a pore in the mitochondrial outer membrane that is responsible for cell death. Using blue native-PAGE to investigate how Bax oligomerizes in the mitochondrial outer membrane, we observed that, like Bak, a proportion of Bax that constitutively resides at mitochondria associates with voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)2 prior to an apoptotic stimulus. During apoptosis, Bax dissociates from VDAC2 and homo-oligomerizes to form high molecular weight oligomers. In cells that lack VDAC2, constitutive mitochondrial localization of Bax and Bak was impaired, suggesting that VDAC2 has a role in Bax and Bak import to, or stability at, the mitochondrial outer membrane. However, following an apoptotic stimulus, Bak and Bax retained the ability to accumulate at VDAC2-deficient mitochondria and to mediate cell death. Silencing of Bak in VDAC2-deficient cells indicated that Bax required either VDAC2 or Bak in order to translocate to and oligomerize at the mitochondrial outer membrane to efficiently mediate apoptosis. In contrast, efficient Bak homo-oligomerization at the mitochondrial outer membrane and its pro-apoptotic function required neither VDAC2 nor Bax. Even a C-terminal mutant of Bax (S184L) that localizes to mitochondria did not constitutively target mitochondria deficient in VDAC2, but was recruited to mitochondria following an apoptotic stimulus dependent on Bak or upon over-expression of Bcl-xL. Together, our data suggest that Bax localizes to the mitochondrial outer membrane via alternate mechanisms, either constitutively via an interaction with VDAC2 or after activation via interaction with Bcl-2 family proteins.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.119.Cell death and differentiation. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Mcl-1 is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family frequently upregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We now report the physiological significance of an interaction between Mcl-1 and the mitochondrial outer membrane-localized voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) in NSCLC cell lines. Mcl-1 bound with high affinity to VDAC1 and 3 isoforms but only very weakly to VDAC2 and binding was disrupted by peptides based on the VDAC1 sequence. In A549 cells, reducing Mcl-1 expression levels or application of VDAC-based peptides limited Ca2+ uptake into the mitochondrial matrix, the consequence of which was to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In A549, H1299 and H460 cells, both Mcl-1 knockdown and VDAC-based peptides attenuated cell migration without affecting cell proliferation. Migration was rescued in Mcl-1 knockdown cells by experimentally restoring ROS levels, consistent with a model in which ROS production drives increased migration. These data suggest that an interaction beCell Death & Disease 10/2014; 5:e1482. · 6.04 Impact Factor