Serum resistin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its relationship with body composition.
ABSTRACT To assess the relationships of resistin concentrations with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, and body protein mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).
This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April 2008 to March 2011. A total of 229 subjects were selected for the study. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Parameters recorded included BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR), total body water, fat, protein, and lean body masses. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and resistin levels.
We found that BMI, WHR, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and resistin levels were significantly higher in diabetics compared to non-diabetic healthy individuals. Fat mass was significantly higher in diabetic patients compared with controls, while the difference for muscle mass and lean body mass was non-significant. A significant positive correlation was observed between plasma levels of resistin and fat mass in patients with DM (r=0.2824, p=0.0030).
Type 2 DM patients have significantly higher resistin levels that are positively correlated with body fat mass supporting the evidence that resistin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity is commonly associated with type 2 diabetes and vascular disease. Changes in body composition in the obese state lead to a dysregulation of secretion of adipocyte-secreted hormones known as adipokines. The current study aimed to assess the relative physiological correlation of adipocytokines with immunity in urban Saudi patients. The serum adipocytokine (leptin, adipo-nectin, resistin, visfatin and apelin), metabolic parameters (insulin, fasting glucose, HbA1c % (Glycated Hemoglobin) immunological indices (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) and complement factors (C3, C4) in different metabolic disorders states such as obesity and T2DM (Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus) were determined. A total 100 adult male subjects were enrolled including 30 healthy that served as a control, 25 Glucophage treated T2DM, 22 overweight (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25-29.99) and 23 obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients. The current results showed that serum adipocytokines status has altered in obesity and treated T2DM compared to healthy individuals. In addition to HbA1c %, serum visfatin was also the prominent biomarker adipokine in treated T2DM while leptin was the highest in obese (BMI ≥ 30). These metabolic disorders did not affect serum levels of the assessed immunity indices. Current knowledge suggests that adipokines provide potential therapeutic targets against type 2 diabetes and vascular disease. This study provides a strong association between adipocytokine and IR (Insulin Resistance). With the increasing epidemic of obesity and T2DM in Saudi Arabia, these adipocytokine markers that integrate metabolic and inflammatory signals may play important roles in the treatment and prevention of obesity and diabetes as well as planning of therapeutic strategies and the early detection of diabetes.Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 03/2015; 8(3):184-200. DOI:10.4236/jbise.2015.83018
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, coronary heart disease and heart failure. Also, it had a deleterious impact on renal function and a link to diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin resistance. Resistin is new adipokine and may play a role in cardiac, diabetics and renal patients.01/2015; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ejcdt.2014.12.002
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the plasma levels and relations of adipocytokines and biochemical bone markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Saudi males with insulin resistance. Methods This case-control study included 80 overweight/obese males with T2DM on oral anti-diabetic medications recruited from the diabetic center and 40 healthy lean males of matched age. Measurements included fasting plasma glucose (FBG), fasting plasma insulin, serum calcium (Ca2 +), HbA1c, plasma adiponectin and resistance, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), plasma osteocalcin (OC), and plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG). Waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body mass index, waist/hip ratio (WHR), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Results Compared to the control group, diabetic patients showed significantly both lower adiponectin (p = 0.000) and Ca2 + (p = 0.000) but significantly higher resistance (p = 0.000), OC (p = 0.000), B-ALP level (p = 0.000) and OPG (p = 0.000). After multivariate adjustment in diabetic patients, resistance predicted OC, (beta = −0.30, p = 0.005), WC and resistance predicted Ca2+ (beta = −0.34, p = 0.035 and beta = −0.25, p = 0.033), adiponectin and resistance predicted B-ALP, (beta = −0.35, p = 0.010 and beta = 0.35, p = 0.004), and FBG, HOMA-IR and age predicted OPG, (beta = −0.66, p = 0.010, beta = 0.58, p = 0.024 and beta = 0.27, p = 0.031 respectively). Also, FBG, WHR and HOMA-IR predicted adiponectin (beta = −0.79, p = 0.001, beta = −0.60, p = 0.001 and beta = 0.80, p = 0.001 respectively), while OC and OPG predicted HbA1c (beta = −0.32, p = 0.007 and beta = 0.28, p = 0.016 respectively). Conclusion Uncontrolled T2DM Saudi males with insulin resistance have abnormal bone markers with unfavorable levels of adipocytokines. Strong associations between bone markers, adipocytokines, insulin resistance and metabolic control may suggest interaction in multiple direction feedback loops exacerbating hyperglycemia.06/2014; 9(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jtumed.2013.12.004