Elevated resting heart rate is an independent predictor of all-cause death and cardiovascular events in Japanese ambulatory hemodialysis patients

Center of Residency and Fellowship Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0215, Japan, .
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology (Impact Factor: 2.02). 05/2012; 16(6). DOI: 10.1007/s10157-012-0641-3
Source: PubMed


BACKGROUND: Elevated heart rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for all-cause death or cardiovascular events in non-hemodialysis subjects; however, the clinical significance of elevated HR in hemodialysis patients is not well studied. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the relationship between HR and adverse outcome in a total of 229 ambulatory hemodialysis patients (57 % men; mean age 62.2 years) recruited from two dialysis clinics in 2009. Mean (SD) HR of this cohort was 74.1 (11.0) beats per minute (bpm). RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic curves identified an HR cut-off level of ≥80 bpm for increased adverse outcome. After a mean follow-up of 525 days (range 7-760 days) a total of 30 primary endpoints (21 all-cause deaths, 4 acute coronary syndromes and 8 strokes) and 38 secondary endpoints (30 primary endpoints, 8 congestive heart failures, and 5 other cardiovascular events) were detected. Cox regression analysis revealed that HR >80 bpm was not an independent predictor of primary endpoints [hazard ratio 1.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79-4.11, p = NS], but of secondary endpoints (hazard ratio 2.01, 95 % CI 1.01-4.22, p < 0.05) after adjusting for age, sex, hemodialysis duration, and cardiovascular risks. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated HR is an independent predictor of all-cause death and cardiovascular events in Japanese ambulatory hemodialysis patients.

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