PD-1/PD-L1 blockade can enhance HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell immunity elicited by dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vaccines.
ABSTRACT Exhaustion of CD8(+) T cells and upregulation of programmed death 1 (PD-1), a negative regulator of T cell activation, are characteristic features of individuals chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In a previous study, we showed in mice that a dendritic cell-directed lentiviral vector (DCLV) system encoding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag protein was an efficient vaccine modality to induce a durable Gag-specific T cell immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that blocking of the PD-1/PD-1 ligand (PD-L) inhibitory signal via an anti-PD-L1 antibody generated an enhanced HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8(+) immune response following both a single round of DCLV immunization and a homologous prime/boost regimen. The prime/boost regimen combined with PD-L1 blockade generated very high levels of Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells comprising several valuable features: improved ability to produce multiple cytokines, responding to a broader range of Gag-derived epitopes, and long-lasting memory. This enhanced cellular immune response generated by DCLV immunization combined with anti-PD-L1 blockade correlated with improved viral control following challenge with Gag-expressing vaccinia virus. Taken together, our studies offer evidence to support the use of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as an adjuvant modality to enhance antigen-specific immune responses elicited by T cell-based immunizations such as DCLV.
- SourceAvailable from: Sang-Jun Ha[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Therapeutic vaccination is a potentially promising strategy to enhance T cell immunity and viral control in chronically infected individuals. However, therapeutic vaccination approaches have fallen short of expectations, and effective boosting of antiviral T cell responses has not always been observed. One of the principal reasons for the limited success of therapeutic vaccination is that virus-specific T cells become functionally exhausted during chronic infections. We now provide a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines. In this study, we show that blocking programmed death (PD)-1/PD-L1 inhibitory signals on exhausted CD8(+) T cells, in combination with therapeutic vaccination, synergistically enhances functional CD8(+) T cell responses and improves viral control in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. This combinatorial therapeutic vaccination was effective even in the absence of CD4(+) T cell help. Thus, our study defines a potent new approach to augment the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination by blocking negative signals. Such an approach may have broad applications in developing treatment strategies for chronic infections in general, and perhaps also for tumors.Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/2008; 205(3):543-55. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immunoreceptor PD-1 is significantly up-regulated on exhausted CD8+ T cells during chronic viral infections such as HIV-1. However, it remains unknown whether PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells differs between typical progressors (TPs) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). In this report, we examined PD-1 expression on HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from 63 adults with chronic HIV infection. We found that LTNPs exhibited functional HIV-specific memory CD8+ T cells with markedly lower PD-1 expression. TPs, in contrast, showed significantly up-regulated PD-1 expression that was closely correlated with a reduction in CD4 T-cell number and an elevation in plasma viral load. Importantly, PD-1 up-regulation was also associated with reduced perforin and IFN-gamma production, as well as decreased HIV-specific effector memory CD8+ T-cell proliferation in TPs but not LTNPs. Blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interactions efficiently restored HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell effector function and proliferation. Taken together, these findings confirm the hypothesis that high PD-1 up-regulation mediates HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell exhaustion. Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic option for this disease and provide more insight into immune pathogenesis in LTNPs.Blood 07/2007; 109(11):4671-8. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Defining the T helper functions impaired by programmed death-1 (PD-1) is crucial for understanding its role in defective HIV control and determining the therapeutic potential of targeting this inhibitory pathway. We describe here the relationships among disease stage, levels of PD-1 expression, and reversibility of CD4 T-cell impairment. PD-L1 blockade in vitro enhanced HIV-specific production of Th0 (IL-2), Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-13), and TFH (IL-21) cytokines by CD4 T cells. PD-L1 blockade caused an early increase in cytokine transcription and translation that preceded cell proliferation. Although the impact of PD-L1 blockade on cytokine expression and, to a lesser extent, cell proliferation was associated with markers of disease progression, restoration of cytokine secretion was also observed in most subjects with undetectable viremia. PD-L1 blockade restored cytokine secretion in both PD-1intermediate and PD-1high sorted CD4 T-cell subsets. Compared with PD-1high HIV-specific CD8 T cells, PD-1high HIV-specific CD4 T cells showed lower expression of the inhibitory molecules CD160 and 2B4, demonstrating marked differences in expression of inhibitory receptors between T-cell subsets. These data show that PD-1 impairs HIV-specific T helper responses both by limiting expansion of these cells and by inhibiting effector functions of multiple differentiated CD4 T-cell subsets.Blood 06/2011; 118(4):965-74. · 9.06 Impact Factor