High molecular weight hyaluronan reduces lipopolysaccharide mediated microglial activation.
ABSTRACT J. Neurochem. (2012) 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07789.x ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) signaling has been implicated in microglial activation and propagation of inflammation following spinal cord injury (SCI). As such, modulating microglial activation through TLR4 represents an attractive therapeutic approach to treat SCI. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA), a polymer with multiple therapeutic uses, has been previously shown to modulate TLR4 activation in macrophages and has shown early promise as a therapeutic agent in SCI. However, the mechanism associated with HMW-HA has not been fully elucidated or tested in microglia, a similar cell type. In the current study, we sought to determine the effects of HMW-HA on TLR4 activation in microglia and to gain insights into the mechanism of action. Rat primary microglial cultures were exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and HMW-HA, and the extent and mechanisms of inflammation were studied. HMW-HA decreased LPS mediated IL-1β, IL-6, and Tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression and IL-6 and nitric oxide production. This decrease was associated with a reduction in ERK 1/2 and p38 phosphorylation, was dependent on the continued presence of HMW-HA, and activation of Akt and A20 protein expression was reduced by HMW-HA. Together, our results show that HMW-HA can reduce LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling in microglia. We suggest that HA possibly mediates its effects by blocking the induction of inflammatory signaling through an extracellular mechanism.
- SourceAvailable from: S. Thomas Carmichael[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Focal stroke is a disabling disease with lifelong sensory, motor and cognitive impairments. Given the paucity of effective clinical treatments, basic scientists are developing novel options for protection of the affected brain and regeneration of lost tissue. Tissue bioengineering and stem/progenitor cell treatments have both been individually pursued for stroke neural repair therapies, with some benefit in tissue recovery. Emerging directions in stroke neural repair approaches combine these two therapies to use biopolymers with stem/progenitor transplants to promote greater cell survival in the transplant and directed delivery of bioactive molecules to the transplanted cells and the adjacent injured tissue. In this review the background literature on a combined use of neural stem/progenitor cells encapsulated in hyaluronan gels is discussed and the way this therapeutic approach can affect the important processes involved in brain tissue reconstruction, such as angiogenesis, axon regeneration, neural differentiation and inflammation is clarified. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan can optimize those processes and be employed in a successful neural tissue engineering approach.Biomatter. 01/2013; 3(1).