Article

Sir3 and epigenetic inheritance of silent chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 05/2012; 32(14):2784-93. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.06399-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epigenetic mechanisms maintain the specific characteristics of differentiated cells by ensuring the inheritance of gene expression patterns through DNA replication and mitosis. We examined the mechanism of epigenetic inheritance of Sir protein-dependent transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by examining gene expression and molecular markers of silencing at the silent mating type loci under conditions of limiting Sir3 protein. We observed that silencing at HMR, as previously reported for HML, is epigenetically inherited. This inheritance is accompanied by an increased ability of previously silenced cells to retain or recruit limiting Sir3 protein to cis-acting silencer sequences. We also observed that the low H4-K16 histone acetylation and H3-K79 methylation associated with a silenced HMR locus persist in recently derepressed cells for several generations at levels of Sir3 insufficient to maintain these marks in long-term-derepressed cells. The unique ability of previously silenced cells to retain Sir3 protein, maintain silencing-specific histone modifications, and repress HMR transcription at levels of Sir3 insufficient to mediate these effects in long-term-derepressed cells suggests that a cis-acting, chromatin-based mechanism drives epigenetic inheritance at this locus.

1 Follower
 · 
114 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic gene expression occurs in the context of structurally distinct chromosomal domains such as the relatively open, gene-rich, and transcriptionally active euchromatin and the condensed and gene-poor heterochromatin where its specific chromatin environment inhibits transcription. To study gene silencing by heterochromatin, we created a minichromosome reporter system where the gene silencer elements were used to repress the URA3 reporter gene. The minichromosome reporters were propagated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a stable copy number. Conduction of gene silencing through nucleosome arrays was studied by placing various repeats of clone-601 DNA with high affinity for histones between the silencer and reporter in the yeast minichromosomes. High-resolution chromatin mapping with micrococcal nuclease showed that the clone-601 nucleosome positioning downstream of the HML-E gene silencing element was not significantly altered by chromatin silencing. Using URA3 reporter assays, we observed that gene silencing was conducted through arrays of up to eight nucleosomes. We showed that the shorter nucleosome repeat lengths, typical of yeast (167 and 172 bp), were more efficient in conducting silencing in vivo compared to the longer repeats (207 bp) typical of higher eukaryotes. Both the longer and the shorter repeat lengths were able to conduct silencing in minichromosomes independent of clone-601 nucleosome positioning orientations versus the silencer element. We suggest that the shorter nucleosome linkers are more suitable for conducting gene silencing than the long repeats in yeast due to their higher propensity to support native-like chromatin higher-order folding.
    Genetics 09/2014; 198(3). DOI:10.1534/genetics.114.169508 · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sir2 is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase required to mediate transcriptional silencing and suppress rDNA recombination in budding yeast. We previously identified Tdh3, a glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as a high expression suppressor of the lethality caused by Sir2 overexpression in yeast cells. Here we show that Tdh3 interacts with Sir2, localizes to silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent manner, and promotes normal silencing at the telomere and rDNA. Characterization of specific TDH3 alleles suggests that Tdh3's influence on silencing requires nuclear localization but does not correlate with its catalytic activity. Interestingly, a genetic assay suggests that Tdh3, an NAD(+)-binding protein, influences nuclear NAD(+) levels; we speculate that Tdh3 links nuclear Sir2 with NAD(+) from the cytoplasm.
    PLoS Genetics 10/2013; 9(10):e1003871. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003871 · 8.17 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
34 Downloads
Available from
Jun 6, 2014