The COPII pathway and hematologic disease
ABSTRACT Multiple diseases, hematologic and nonhematologic, result from defects in the early secretory pathway. Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII) and combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D) are the 2 known hematologic diseases that result from defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport system. CDAII is caused by mutations in the SEC23B gene, which encodes a core component of the coat protein complex II (COPII). F5F8D results from mutations in either LMAN1 (lectin mannose-binding protein 1) or MCFD2 (multiple coagulation factor deficiency protein 2), which encode the ER cargo receptor complex LMAN1-MCFD2. These diseases and their molecular pathogenesis are the focus of this review.
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ABSTRACT: Arenaviruses and hantaviruses cause severe human disease. Little is known regarding host proteins required for their propagation. We identified human proteins that interact with the glycoproteins (GPs) of a prototypic arenavirus and hantavirus and show that the lectin endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment 53 kDa protein (ERGIC-53), a cargo receptor required for glycoprotein trafficking within the early exocytic pathway, associates with arenavirus, hantavirus, coronavirus, orthomyxovirus, and filovirus GPs. ERGIC-53 binds to arenavirus GPs through a lectin-independent mechanism, traffics to arenavirus budding sites, and is incorporated into virions. ERGIC-53 is required for arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus propagation; in its absence, GP-containing virus particles form but are noninfectious, due in part to their inability to attach to host cells. Thus, we have identified a class of pathogen-derived ERGIC-53 ligands, a lectin-independent basis for their association with ERGIC-53, and a role for ERGIC-53 in the propagation of several highly pathogenic RNA virus families.Cell host & microbe 11/2013; 14(5):522-34. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2013.10.010 · 12.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent improvement in modern analytical technologies has stimulated an explosive growth in the study of glycobiology. In turn, this has lead to a richer understanding of the crucial role of N-and O-linked carbohydrates in dictating the properties of the proteins to which they are attached, and in particular, their centrality in the control of protein synthesis, longevity and activity. Given their importance, it is unsurprising that both gross and subtle defects in glycosylation often contribute to human disease pathology. In this review, we discuss the accumulating evidence for the significance of glycosylation in mediating the functions of the plasma glycoproteins involved in haemostasis and thrombosis. In particular, the role of naturally occurring coagulation protein glycoforms and inherited defects in carbohydrate attachment in modulating coagulation is considered. Finally, we describe the therapeutic opportunities presented by new insights into the role of attached carbohydrates in shaping coagulation protein function, and the promise of carbohydrate modification in the delivery of novel therapeutic biologics with enhanced functional properties for the treatment of hemostatic disorders.Blood 02/2013; DOI:10.1182/blood-2012-10-415000 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: eLife digest The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a structure that performs a variety of functions within eukaryotic cells. It can be divided into two regions: the surface of the rough ER is coated with ribosomes that manufacture various proteins, while the smooth ER is involved in activities such as lipid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Proteins synthesized by the ribosomes attached to the rough ER are generally transferred to another structure within the cell, the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo further processing and packaging before being secreted or transported to another location within the cell. Proteins are shuttled from the ER to the Golgi apparatus by vesicles covered with coat protein complex II (COPII). This complex is composed of an inner and outer coat, each of which is assembled primarily with two different SEC proteins: the SEC23/SEC24 protein heterodimer forms the inner coat of the COPII vesicle, and plays a key role in recruiting the appropriate protein cargos to the transport vesicle, while the SEC13/SEC31 protein heterotetramer forms the outer coat and is generally responsible for regulating vesicle size and rigidity. Previous work found that mammals, including humans and mice, harbor multiple copies of several SEC protein genes, including two copies of SEC23 and four copies of SEC24. Both copies of SEC23 are derived from the same ancestral gene, and all four copies of SEC24 are derived from a different ancestral gene, and the availability of these copies potentially expands the range of properties that the vesicles can have. Insight into the roles of each SEC protein has come from work with SEC mutants. For example, a mutation in SEC23A was found to cause skeletal abnormalities in humans. Here, Chen et al. report the results of experiments which showed that mice with an inactive Sec24a gene could develop normally. However, these mice experienced a 45% reduction in their plasma cholesterol levels because they were not able to recruit and transport a secretory protein called PCSK9, which is a critical regulator of blood cholesterol levels. The work of Chen et al. reveals a previously unappreciated complexity in the recruitment of secretory proteins to the COPII vesicle and suggests that the various combinations of SEC proteins influence the proteins selected for transport to the Golgi apparatus. The work also identifies Sec24a as a potential therapeutic target for the reduction of plasma cholesterol, a finding that could be of interest to researchers working on heart disease and other conditions exacerbated by high cholesterol. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00444.002eLife Sciences 04/2013; 2:e00444. DOI:10.7554/eLife.00444 · 8.52 Impact Factor