What do Kramer's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative PROBIT studies tell us? A review of a decade of research.
ABSTRACT Kramer et al's PROBIT (Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial) research in Belarus studied effects of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) training on breastfeeding duration, exclusivity, and health outcomes.
To critique inclusion criteria, context, approaches to data analysis, and health outcome results.
Twenty-two articles were retrieved from PubMed and the PROBIT Website for 2001-2010; 6 were excluded as not focusing on breastfeeding and health outcomes.
PROBIT data from the cluster randomized hospital comparisons included only breastfed babies since all non-breastfed babies were excluded from the research. Context may affect outcomes, knowing that Belarus has good basic health services, 3-year maternity leaves with little use of daycare, 95% breastfeeding initiation rate, and a well-educated population. PROBIT data were analyzed in 2 ways: (a) intent-to-treat analyses of breastfeeding and health differences by cluster randomized intervention and control site mother/baby pairs; and (b) as an observational cohort study of health outcomes for all mother/baby pairs, analyzed by various breastfeeding categorizations and controlling for biases. PROBIT demonstrated links between BFHI and longer breastfeeding duration (19.7% vs 11.4% at 12 months, P < .001) and exclusivity (43.3% vs 6.4% at 3 months, P < .001), reductions in gastrointestinal episodes and rashes, higher verbal IQ scores, and longer exclusive breastfeeding rates for subsequent children but no statistically significant differences in the child's body mass index, blood pressure, or dental health.
PROBIT provides foundational evidence for BFHI policy and follow-up care. Knowing that non-breastfed babies were excluded, caution must be exercised for health comparisons.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The first days after delivery of a newborn infant are critical for breastfeeding establishment. Successful initiation and continuation-especially of exclusive breastfeeding-have become public health priorities, but it is fraught with many individual- and systems-level barriers. In this article, we review how hospital newborn services can be constructed or restructured to support the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad so that they can achieve high levels of breastfeeding success. Important positive and negative factors from the prenatal period, and the preparation for hospital discharge are also discussed.Pediatric Clinics of North America 02/2013; 60(1):147-68. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.09.013 · 2.20 Impact Factor
- Jornal de pediatria 06/2013; 89(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jped.2013.05.002 · 0.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Observationally, breastfeeding is associated with lower blood pressure in Western developed settings, whereas little association exists in developing settings. However, postnatal characteristics (e.g., breast milk substitutes, infection rates, underweight, and pubertal timing) differ between these settings. We examined the association of breastfeeding with blood pressure at ∼13 years, using multivariable linear regression, in 5,247 term births in 1997 from a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort where socioeconomic patterning of breastfeeding differs from that of Western and developing settings but standard of living, social infrastructure, and postnatal characteristics are similar to those of Western settings. Higher education is associated with short-term breastfeeding but recent migration with longer-term breastfeeding. Compared with never breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for ≥3 months was not associated with blood pressure (systolic mean difference = 0.82 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.46, 2.11 and diastolic mean difference = 0.49 mm Hg, 95% CI: -0.22, 1.21), nor was partial breastfeeding for any length of time or exclusive breastfeeding for <3 months (systolic mean difference = 0.01 mm Hg, 95% CI: -0.64, 0.66 and diastolic mean difference = 0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI: -0.20, 0.52), adjusted for socioeconomic position and infant characteristics. Lack of association in a non-Western developed setting further suggests that observations concerning breastfeeding and blood pressure vary with setting, thereby casting doubt on causality.American journal of epidemiology 07/2013; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt076 · 4.98 Impact Factor