Age related differences in the neural substrates of motor sequence learning after interleaved and repetitive practice.
ABSTRACT Practice of tasks in an interleaved order generally induces superior retention compared to practicing in a repetitive order. Younger and older adults practiced serial reaction time tasks that were arranged in a repeated or an interleaved order on 2 successive days. Retention was tested on Day 5. For both groups, reaction times in the interleaved condition were slower than the repetitive condition during practice, but the reverse was true during retention on Day 5. After interleaved practice, changes in M1 excitability measured by paired-pulse TMS were greater than after repetitive practice, and this effect was more pronounced in older adults. Moreover, the increased M1 excitability correlated with the benefit of interleaved practice. BOLD signal was also increased for interleaved compared to repetitive practice in both groups. However, the pattern of correlations between increased BOLD during practice and subsequent benefit of the interleaved condition differed by group. In younger adults, dorsolateral-prefrontal activity during practice was related to this benefit, while in older adults, activation in sensorimotor regions and rostral prefrontal cortex during practice correlated with the benefit of interleaving on retention. Older adults may engage compensatory mechanisms during interleaved practice such as increasing sensorimotor recruitment which in turn benefits learning.
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ABSTRACT: During the last twenty-five years, the contextual interference effect has been thoroughly studied. This review finds that the effect is relatively robust in basic research, but considerably weaker in applied settings. Motor learning scholars have urged practitioners to develop instructional strategies based upon the inferences of the contextual interference effect. The smaller effects seem to indicate that the concept may have more limited use for the physical educator. It appears that the generalization of procedures from other domains may not adequately accommodate the complexity of motor skills. Manipulating the task difficulty, both nominal and functional, and the contextual continuum may be a promising route for the practitioner.Perceptual and Motor Skills 05/2008; 106(2):461-72. DOI:10.2466/PMS.106.2.461-472 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the advancements in MRI hardware, pulse sequences and reconstruction techniques, many low TR sequences are becoming more and more popular within the functional MRI (fMRI) community. In this study, we have investigated the spectral characteristics of resting state networks (RSNs) with a newly introduced ultra fast fMRI technique, called generalized inverse imaging (GIN). The high temporal resolution of GIN (TR = 50 ms) enables to sample cardiac signals without aliasing into a separate frequency band from the BOLD fluctuations. Respiration related signal changes are, on the other hand, removed from the data without the need for external physiological recordings. We have observed that the variance over the subjects is higher than the variance over RSNs.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 04/2013; 7:156. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00156 · 2.90 Impact Factor