High-density lipoprotein subclass and particle size in coronary heart disease patients with or without diabetes.
ABSTRACT A higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in people with diabetes. We investigated the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass profiles and alterations of particle size in CHD patients with diabetes or without diabetes.
Plasma HDL subclasses were quantified in CHD by 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection.
Although the particle size of HDL tend to small, the mean levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) have achieved normal or desirable for CHD patients with or without diabetes who administered statins therapy. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), TC, LDL-C concentrations, and HDL3 (HDL3b and 3a) contents along with Gensini Score were significantly higher; but those of HDL-C, HDL2b+preβ2, and HDL2a were significantly lower in CHD patients with diabetes versus CHD patients without diabetes; The preβ1-HDL contents did not differ significantly between these groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that Gensini Score was significantly and independently predicted by HDL2a, and HDL2b+preβ2.
The abnormality of HDL subpopulations distribution and particle size may contribute to CHD risk in diabetes patients. The HDL subclasses distribution may help in severity of coronary artery and risk stratification, especially in CHD patients with therapeutic LDL, TG and HDL levels.
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ABSTRACT: The activities of hepatic and lipoprotein lipase and the levels of lipo- and apoproteins were compared in two groups of normoglycaemic men representing the highest (n = 18) and lowest (n = 15) fasting insulin quintiles of first degree male relatives of non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The high insulin group representing insulin-resistant individuals had significantly lower post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activity than the low insulin group (14.2 +/- 4.0 vs 20 +/- 5.8 mumol NEFA.ml-1.h-1, p < 0.001); hepatic lipase activity did not differ between the two groups (24.2 +/- 11 vs 18.0 +/- 5.3 mumol NEFA.ml-1.h-1, NS). The lipoprotein lipase/hepatic lipase ratio in the high insulin group was decreased by 66% as compared to the low insulin group (0.75 +/- 0.57 vs 1.25 +/- 0.65, p < 0.01). In the high insulin group both total and VLDL triglycerides were higher than in the low insulin group (1.61 +/- 0.57 vs 0.86 +/- 0.26 mmol/l, p < 0.001 and 1.00 +/- 0.47 vs 0.36 +/- 0.16 mmol/l, p < 0.001, respectively) whereas HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol were lower (1.20 +/- 0.30 vs 1.43 +/- 0.22 mmol/l, p < 0.05 and 0.49 +/- 0.21 vs 0.71 +/- 0.17 mmol/l, p < 0.05, respectively). Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol or HDL3 cholesterol did not differ between the two groups. The mean particle size of LDL was smaller in the high insulin group than in the low insulin group (258 +/- 7 vs 265 +/- 6 A, p < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Diabetologia 03/1995; 38(3):344-50. · 6.81 Impact Factor
Article: Development of a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic method for determining plasma lipoprotein concentrations and subspecies distributions from a single, rapid measurement.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We are developing a method for quantifying plasma lipoproteins by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy that offers advantages over existing clinical methods. We showed that the major lipoproteins have distinct NMR properties sufficient to permit their concentrations to be extracted from a computer lineshape analysis of the plasma lipid methyl resonance envelope (Clin Chem 1991; 37:377-86). We have now discovered that the spectra of the subspecies within each lipoprotein class are different enough to influence the composite spectrum of that class and hence the spectrum of whole plasma. By including spectra representative of these subspecies as additional components in the lineshape-fitting analysis, a complete concentration profile of very-low-density, low-density (LDL), and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins plus the subspecies distributions within these classes can be simultaneously generated. A pilot study of 30 plasma samples of widely varied composition demonstrated good agreement between NMR-derived values and lipoprotein lipid concentrations and LDL and HDL subspecies distributions determined by gradient-gel electrophoresis.Clinical Chemistry 10/1992; 38(9):1632-8. · 7.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis development is accelerated severalfold in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In the initial stages of disease, monocytes transmigrate into the subendothelial space and differentiate into foam cells. Scavenger receptors and ATP binding cassette (ABC) Transporters play an important role in foam cell formation as they regulate the influx and efflux of oxidized lipids. Here, we show that peritoneal macrophages isolated from Type 2 diabetic db/db mice have decreased expression of the ABC transporter ABCG1 and increased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. We found a 2-fold increase in accumulation of esterified cholesterol in diabetic db/db macrophages compared with wild-type control macrophages. Diabetic db/db macrophages also had impaired cholesterol efflux to high density lipoprotein but not to lipid-free apo A-I, suggesting that the increased esterified cholesterol in diabetic db/db macrophages was due to a selective loss of ABCG1-mediated efflux to high density lipoprotein. Additionally, we were able to confirm down-regulation of ABCG1 using C57BL/6J peritoneal macrophages cultured in elevated glucose in vitro (25 mM glucose for 7 days), suggesting that ABCG1 expression in diabetic macrophages is regulated by chronic exposure to elevated glucose. Diabetic KK(ay) mice were also studied and were found to have decreased ABCG1 expression without an increase in CD36. These observations demonstrate that ABCG1 plays a major role in macrophage cholesterol efflux and that decreased ABCG1 function can facilitate foam cell formation in Type 2 diabetic mice.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 281(30):21216-24. · 4.77 Impact Factor