Risk of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ABSTRACT Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for certain malignancies. We aimed to determine the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with IBD and how medications affect these risks.
We performed retrospective cohort and nested case-control studies using administrative data from the LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database from 1997 to 2009. The cohort comprised 108,579 patients with IBD, and each was matched to 4 individuals without IBD. The risk of melanoma and NMSC was evaluated by incidence rate ratio (IRR) and by adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) modeling. In nested case-control studies, patients with melanoma or NMSC were matched to 4 patients with IBD without melanoma or NMSC. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine associations between medications and both skin cancers.
In the cohort, IBD was associated with an increased incidence of melanoma (IRR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.53). Risk was greatest among individuals with Crohn's disease (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.85; adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64). The incidence of NMSC also increased among patients with IBD (IRR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.40-1.53) and was greatest among those with CD (IRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.54-1.74). In the nested case-control studies, therapy with biologics increased the risk of melanoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% CI, 1.08-3.29). Patients who had been treated with thiopurines had an increased risk of NMSC (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.66-2.05).
Immunosuppression increases the risk of melanoma and NMSC among patients with IBD. The risk of melanoma is increased by use of biologics, and the risk of NMSC is increased by use of thiopurines. Patients with IBD should be counseled and monitored for skin cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the risk varies between different studies and seems to be decreasing. The cumulative risk of CRC has been reported to be 1%, 2%, and 5% after 10, 20, and over 20 years of disease duration, respectively, in recent meta-analysis. Disease duration and grade of inflammation are the main driving forces of dysplasia and CRC development. Also, the risk of extraintestinal cancers is increased in IBD, where the degree of immunosuppression and its duration are the most important risk factors. Most important extraintestinal malignancies are lymphomas and non-melanoma skin cancers, both of which are increased in patients receiving thiopurines. Also, extraintestinal manifestations or concomitant diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis predispose IBD patients to malignancies such as cholangiocarcinoma. History of previous cancer increases the risk of developing either new or recurrent cancers and should be taken into account when choosing therapy and planning surveillance. Dysplasia and cancer screening and surveillance must be individualized according to patients' risk factors. Malignancies are the second most common cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in both genders in patients with IBD.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 50(1):81-9. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.992041 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis can cause debilitating symptoms and complications such as colonic strictures, colonic dysplasia, colorectal cancer, and toxic megacolon or perforation. Goals of treatment in ulcerative colitis include resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms, healing of colonic mucosa, and prevention of disease complications. Our treatment armamentarium has expanded dramatically over the past 10 years, and we now have multiple biologic agents approved for the treatment of moderate-severe disease, in addition to conventional therapies such as 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, and corticosteroids. In this review, we will provide a detailed discussion of the three tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors currently approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. All three agents are effective for inducing and maintaining clinical response and remission in patients with ulcerative colitis, and they have comparable safety profiles. There are no head-to-head trials comparing their efficacy, and the choice of agent is most often based on insurance coverage, route of administration, and patient preference. Combination therapy with an immunomodulator is proven to be more effective than anti-TNF monotherapy, and patients who lose response to an anti-TNF agent should undergo dose intensification in order to regain clinical response. Despite therapeutic optimization, a significant percentage of patients will not achieve clinical remission with anti-TNF agents, and so newer therapies are on the horizon.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:63-73. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S55506 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIM: To analyze the cellular immune response towards microsatellite-instability (MSI)-induced frameshift-peptides (FSPs) in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with and without thiopurine-based immunosuppressive treatment. METHODS: Frequencies of peripheral blood T cell responses of IBD patients (n = 75) against FSPs derived from 14 microsatellite-containing candidate genes were quantified by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot. T cells derived from 20 healthy individuals served as controls. RESULTS: Significant T cell reactivities against MSIinduced FSPs were observed in 59 of 75 IBD patients (78.7%). This was significantly more as we could observe in 20 healthy controls (P = 0.001). Overall, the reactivity was significantly influenced by thiopurine treatment (P = 0.032) and duration of disease (P = 0.002) but not by duration or cumulative amount of thiopurine therapy (P = 0.476). Unexpected, 15 of 24 (62.5%) IBD patients without prior thiopurine treatment also showed increased FSP-specific immune responses (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings propose FSPs as potential novel class of inflammation-associated antigens and this in turn may have implications for screening, diagnosis as well as clinical management of patients suffering from IBD and other inflammatory conditions.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 221(7):221-228. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.221 · 2.43 Impact Factor