Risk of Melanoma and Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Among Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 16.72). 05/2012; 143(2):390-399.e1. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.05.004
Source: PubMed


Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk for certain malignancies. We aimed to determine the risk of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in patients with IBD and how medications affect these risks.
We performed retrospective cohort and nested case-control studies using administrative data from the LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database from 1997 to 2009. The cohort comprised 108,579 patients with IBD, and each was matched to 4 individuals without IBD. The risk of melanoma and NMSC was evaluated by incidence rate ratio (IRR) and by adjusted Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) modeling. In nested case-control studies, patients with melanoma or NMSC were matched to 4 patients with IBD without melanoma or NMSC. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine associations between medications and both skin cancers.
In the cohort, IBD was associated with an increased incidence of melanoma (IRR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.53). Risk was greatest among individuals with Crohn's disease (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.85; adjusted HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64). The incidence of NMSC also increased among patients with IBD (IRR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.40-1.53) and was greatest among those with CD (IRR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.54-1.74). In the nested case-control studies, therapy with biologics increased the risk of melanoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% CI, 1.08-3.29). Patients who had been treated with thiopurines had an increased risk of NMSC (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.66-2.05).
Immunosuppression increases the risk of melanoma and NMSC among patients with IBD. The risk of melanoma is increased by use of biologics, and the risk of NMSC is increased by use of thiopurines. Patients with IBD should be counseled and monitored for skin cancer.

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    • "The association between colonic or small intestinal MM and IBD was first described 20 years ago [22]. Long et al. analyzed insurance data of about 100,000 patients with IBD and found a significantly increased risk of MM in patients with Crohn’s disease, but not in those with ulcerative colitis [23]. However, the risk of MM was increased in patients with both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis who had undergone treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antibodies. "
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    ABSTRACT: A 62 year-old patient with therapy-refractory pouchitis after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis was admitted with hematochezia and abdominal discomfort. A malignant melanoma (MM) was found after repeated biopsies of the pouch. Complete staging revealed no evidence for distant metastases and the patient underwent abdominoperineal pouch resection. Six weeks later, the patient was readmitted because of severe general deterioration and diffuse metastatic spread to the liver was found. The patient died of hepatorenal syndrome shortly thereafter. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk of developing cancer, including rarities such as MM. Our experience stresses the importance of repeated biopsies in therapy-refractory pouchitis.
    11/2013; 18(1):39. DOI:10.1186/2047-783X-18-39
  • Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2012; 8(7):467-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims: The elderly represent a growing demographic of patients with IBD. No study has previously described variations in care or medication prescriptions in senior patients with IBD. We compared prescription rates among elderly patients with IBD in four countries using health administrative data. Methods: Databases from the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), Denmark and Canada were queried. Variation in prescription rates between countries was assessed in patients ≥ 65 y with prevalent IBD who had ≥ 1 prescription for an IBD-related medication in a given quarter between 2004 and 2009. Patients were identified using previously-reported, validated algorithms. Country-specific rates were compared in each quarter using Fisher's exact test. Results: In patients with Crohn's disease, Canada and US had higher prescription rates for oral 5-ASA (P < 0.0001 in all quarters) and infliximab (P < 0.05 in 22/24 quarters), while the US had higher rates of thiopurine usage (P < 0.05 in 23/24 quarters). Canada had greater rates of methotrexate prescriptions (P < 0.05 in 21/24 quarters analyzed). In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), rates of oral steroid usage was lowest in the US (P < 0.05 in 22/24 quarters) and oral 5-ASA use was highest in the US and Canada (P < 0.0001 in all quarters). Canada and Denmark used more rectal therapy than the US. Infliximab usage in UC was significantly higher in the US and Canada after 2006. Conclusions: Significant variation in medication prescription rates exists among countries. Future research should assess whether these differences were associated with disparities in outcomes and health care costs.
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