[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza A (H1N1) has emerged as a considerable threat for recipients of organ transplants. Vaccination against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has generally been advocated. There is limited experience with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed patients.
We conducted an observational, nonrandomized single-center study to assess antibody response and vaccine-related adverse effects in 47 heart transplant recipients (44 men; age, 56±13 years). The AS03-adjuvanted, inactivated split-virion A/California/7/2009 H1N1v pandemic vaccine was administered. Antibody titers were measured using hemagglutination inhibition; immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was assessed using a new pandemic influenza A IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit and compared with hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Adverse effects of vaccination were assessed by a questionnaire.
Postvaccination antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:40 were found in only 15 patients, corresponding to a seroprotection rate of 32% (95% confidence interval, 19%-47%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ELISA testing were 80.0%, 68.8%, 54.5%, and 88.0%, respectively. Age, time posttransplantation, and immunosuppressive regimen did not impact antibody response. Vaccination was well tolerated.
Single-dose administration of an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus did not elicit seroprotective antibody concentrations in a substantial proportion of heart transplant recipients; the new pandemic influenza A IgG ELISA test kit proved to be of limited clinical use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective antigen-sparing vaccines are needed to confront pandemic influenza. Whole-virion and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccines are the most effective formulations against H5N1 avian influenza. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity in adults in the UK of pandemic H1N1 whole-virion vaccine and oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine purchased by the UK government in 2009.
In our randomised, observer-blind, parallel-group, controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and older (from Oct 19, to Nov 12, 2009) received two doses of vaccine given 21 days apart: either 7·5 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as whole-virion vaccine, or 3·75 μg of haemagglutinin formulated as split-virion vaccine with AS03(A) oil-in-water adjuvant. Assignment was by a computer-generated code, with random permuted blocks of two, four, and six. All participants and investigators were unaware of vaccine assignments. The trial was done at three hospitals in the UK. We measured antibody titres with a haemagglutination-inhibition assay at baseline; 7, 14, and 21 days after each vaccination; and at 6 months after the first dose. Primary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity of the full analysis set by the EU Committee of Human Medicinal Products licensing criteria. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN92328241.
At day 0, baseline antibody (titre ≥1/8) was detected in 44 (13%) of 347 participants. Sera from 95% to 98% of participants were assessed for immunogenicity on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, and at 6 months. On day 21 after one dose of adjuvanted AS03(A) or whole-virion vaccine, 63 (94%, 95 CI 85·4-98·4) of 67 and 50 (71%, 59·4-81·6) of 70 participants aged 18-44 years, 51 (77%, 65·3-86·7) of 66 and 26 (39%, 27·1-51·5) of 67 aged 45-64 years, and 19 (51%, 34·4-68·1) of 37 and 11 (32%, 17·4-50·5) of 34 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1:40 or greater. On day 42 (21 days after the second dose), 64 (100%, 94·4-100) of 64 and 49 (73%, 60·9-83·2) of 67 participants aged 18-44 years, 59 (91%, 81·0-96·5) of 65 and 29 (43·9%, 31·7-56·7) of 66 aged 45-64 years, and 28 (76%, 58·8-88·2) of 37 and 12 (36%, 20·4-54·9) of 33 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1/40 or greater. At 6 months, 62 (98%, 91·5-100) of 63 and 54 (78%, 66·7-87·3) of 69 participants aged 18-44 years, 54 (82%, 70·4-90·2) of 66 and 37 (55%, 42·6-67·4) of 67 aged 45-64 years, and 21 (57%, 39·5-72·9) of 37 and 10 (29%, 15·1-47·5) of 34 aged 65 years or older had titres of 1/40 or greater. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Whole-virion vaccine was associated with fewer local and systemic reactions than adjuvanted vaccine.
AS03(A)-adjuvanted vaccine was more immunogenic against pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus than whole-virion vaccine and offers greater antigen-sparing capacity. A two-dose strategy should be considered for older people.
Department of Health, National Institute for Health Research Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During October 2010-July 2011, 1.0% of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses in the United States were oseltamivir resistant, compared with 0.5% during the 2009-10 influenza season. Of resistant viruses from 2010-11 and 2009-10, 26% and 89%, respectively, were from persons exposed to oseltamivir before specimen collection. Findings suggest limited community transmission of oseltamivir-resistant virus.
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