# An expert system for planning and designing dairy farms in hot climates

**ABSTRACT** Eleven simulation models were developed to plan and design several dairy farm facilities. Subsequently, an electronic spark map (decision tree) was developed for each simulation model, and then the simulation models were integrated into the relevant spark maps. Afterwards, C# language (C Sharp), which is an object-oriented programming language, was used to develop an expert system via the simulation models and the electronic spark maps. The developed expert system is able to plan and design several dairy farm facilities, e.g. housing system (corrals system), shade structure and roof material, concrete base, cooling system, milking parlour, forage storage, and manure handling system. Subsequently, it plans the farmstead layout, and it leads to implement the technologies, equipments, and machines required for performing several farm operations. Furthermore, it studies water and electricity requirements of the planned dairy farm and the available sources on site. Moreover, it calculates the capital investment and the fixed, variable, and total costs. Data of six dairy farms were used to carry out the expert system validation and evaluation. The differences between the actual and calculated values were determined and the standard deviations were calculated. The coefficients of variation range between 3% and 7%. The accuracy of the developed expert system is 94.5%.

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**ABSTRACT:**A tool is developed in order to plan and design concrete structures for horizontal silos. A mathematical model was developed. Subsequently, the tool is developed by integrating the mathematical model into an electronic spark map. The spark map (decision tree) specifies the horizontal silo dimensions according to the planned storage volume, computes the required amounts of construction materials to build the horizontal silo, and calculates the capital investment and the fixed, variable, and total costs. On the other hand, the mathematical model of the spark map requires some input data. According to these data, the spark map will make calculations and show the output data automatically. Data of 4 horizontal silos were used to carry out the model validation. The differences between actual and calculated values were determined, and the standard deviations were calculated. The coefficients of variation were 3.4%, 5.5%, 5%, 7%, and 4.5% for amounts of concrete, gravels, cement, sand, and iron rods, respectively.International Journal of Scientific Research and Application ISSN: 2334-6051. 11/2012; 1(1):13-19.

Page 1

Institute of Agricultural Engineering

University of Hohenheim

Livestock Systems Engineering

Prof. Dr. Thomas Jungbluth

An expert system for planning and designing

dairy farms in hot climates

Dissertation

Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

„Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften“

(Dr. sc. agr. in Agricultural Sciences)

to the

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences

presented by

M. Sc. Mohamed Samer Mohamed

Beirut

2008

Page 2

This thesis was accepted as a doctoral dissertation in fulfillment of the requirements for the

degree „Doktor der Agrarwissenschaften“ (Dr. sc. agr. in Agricultural Sciences) by the

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at University of Hohenheim on 19.08.2008.

Examination Committee

Supervisor and Reviewer

Co-Reviewer

Additional Reviewer

Vice-Dean and Head of the Committee

Date of oral examination: October 31, 2008

This work was supported by the Cultural Affairs & Missions Sector of the Ministry of Higher

Education and the State for Scientific Research, Egyptian Government.

All rights reserved. The use of texts and images, even in part, without the consent of the

author is prohibited. This applies in particular to reproduce, translate, microfilming and the

storage and processing in electronic systems.

© 2008

D 100

In Self-publishing:

Source:

Prof. Dr. Thomas Jungbluth

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Hatem

Prof. Dr. Reiner Doluschitz

Prof. Dr. Werner Bessei

Mohamed Samer Mohamed

University of Hohenheim

Institute of Agricultural Engineering -440-

Garbenstr. 9

70599 Stuttgart

Germany

Page 3

Acknowledgments

This study was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of

Hohenheim, in Stuttgart, Germany; and funded by the Cultural Affairs & Missions

Sector of the Ministry of Higher Education and the State for Scientific Research,

Egyptian Government. Thus, I would like to thank the hosting institute and the

sponsors.

I would like to thank all the people who have helped me to accomplish this study:

- Prof. Dr. Thomas Jungbluth, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of

Hohenheim, for his extreme support, effective advices, and encouragement.

- Prof. Dr. Mohamed Hatem, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of

Agriculture, Cairo University, for reviewing the whole work and all the

published papers, for his extreme help to get the scholarship and the required

data for the project, and for his effective ideas and great support.

- Prof. Dr. Reiner Doluschitz, Institute of Computer Applications and Business

Management in Agriculture, University of Hohenheim, for his collaboration.

- CISE, Cattle Information System of Egypt, for providing the project by the

required data.

- Dr. Hartmut Grimm for his assistance.

- Comp. Eng. Ragab Mahrous Fahim Saad for writing the syntax.

- Dr. Annett Reinhardt-Hanisch for sharing her experience, and for her intense

help, ideas, and advices. Further thanks for her efforts to enlighten to me the

German Culture.

- My mother for her intense patience and tremendous loving support.

Stuttgart, on 25.08.2008 Mohamed Samer Mohamed

Page 4

Page 5

__________________________________________________________________________

- Table of Contents - I

Table of Contents

Table of Contents.........................................................................................................I

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols........................................................................... V

List of Tables...........................................................................................................XVI

List of Figures ........................................................................................................XVII

1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................1

1.1 Problem..............................................................................................2

1.2 Objectives...........................................................................................2

2 LITERATURE REVIEW......................................................................3

2.1 Housing System .................................................................................3

2.1.1 Housing Design..................................................................................3

2.1.2 Concrete Constructions......................................................................5

2.1.3 Roof Materials and Structures............................................................6

2.2 Dairy Farm Facilities...........................................................................8

2.2.1

Cooling System ..................................................................................8

2.2.2 Manure Handling System.................................................................12

2.2.3 Milking Parlor....................................................................................13

2.2.4 Forage Storage.................................................................................14

2.3 Farmstead Layout.............................................................................15

2.4 Operating Supply Items....................................................................17

2.5 Expert System..................................................................................18

3 MATERIALS AND METHODS.........................................................21

3.1 General Procedures .........................................................................21

3.2 Knowledge Acquisition .....................................................................22

3.3 Mathematical Modeling.....................................................................23

3.3.1 Housing Design................................................................................23

3.3.1.1 Corral Specifications.........................................................................23

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II

__________________________________________________________________________

- Table of Contents -

3.3.1.2 Decision Making...............................................................................29

3.3.1.3 Shade Calculation ............................................................................30

3.3.1.4 Facilities’ Area..................................................................................31

3.3.2 Concrete Base..................................................................................31

3.3.2.1 Concrete Volume..............................................................................31

3.3.2.2 Construction Materials......................................................................33

3.3.3 Roof Materials and Structure............................................................35

3.3.3.1 General Factors and Concepts.........................................................35

3.3.3.2 Corrals Distribution and Roof Types.................................................35

3.3.3.3 Roof and Structure Specifications ....................................................36

3.3.3.4 Roof Materials ..................................................................................42

3.3.4 Manure Handling Constructions .......................................................44

3.3.4.1 Raw Slurry Storage ..........................................................................45

3.3.4.2 Aeration Storage...............................................................................45

3.3.4.3 Treated Liquid Storage.....................................................................46

3.3.4.4 Composted Product..........................................................................46

3.3.4.5 Storage Tanks..................................................................................48

3.3.5 Milking Parlor Constructions.............................................................51

3.3.5.1 Concrete Constructions....................................................................51

3.3.5.2 Parlor Shed ......................................................................................58

3.3.6 Forage Storage Constructions..........................................................62

3.3.6.1 Annual Forage Storage ....................................................................62

3.3.6.2 Forage Shed.....................................................................................63

3.3.6.3 Horizontal Silo ..................................................................................67

3.3.7 Farmstead Layout.............................................................................70

3.3.8 Cooling System ................................................................................75

3.3.8.1 Fans .................................................................................................76

3.3.8.2 Pump................................................................................................76

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__________________________________________________________________________

- Table of Contents - III

3.3.8.3 Water Lines ......................................................................................77

3.3.9 Water Requirements and Sources....................................................79

3.3.9.1 Water Requirements.........................................................................79

3.3.9.2 Water Sources..................................................................................81

3.3.10 Electricity Requirements and Sources..............................................82

3.3.10.1 Electricity Requirements...................................................................82

3.3.10.2 Electricity Sources............................................................................84

3.3.11 Costs Calculation..............................................................................85

3.3.11.1 Annual Costs....................................................................................85

3.3.11.2 Capital Investment............................................................................90

3.4 Programming....................................................................................90

3.5 Validation and Evaluation.................................................................91

3.5.1 Data Acquisition and Dairy Farms Selection ....................................91

3.5.2 Expert System Validation .................................................................93

3.5.3 Expert System Evaluation ................................................................93

4 RESULTS.........................................................................................94

4.1 Design Model....................................................................................95

4.2 Sub-Models ......................................................................................98

4.2.1 Concrete Base Sub-Model ...............................................................98

4.2.2 Roof Materials and Structure Sub-Model........................................100

4.2.3 Manure Handling/Constructions Sub-Model...................................102

4.2.4 Milking Parlor Constructions Sub-Model.........................................105

4.2.5 Forage Storage Constructions Sub-Model .....................................109

4.2.6 Farmstead Layout Sub-Model ........................................................114

4.2.7 Cooling System Sub-Model............................................................121

4.2.8 Water Sub-Model............................................................................123

4.2.9 Electricity Sub-Model......................................................................126

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IV

__________________________________________________________________________

- Table of Contents -

4.3 Costs Calculation Model.................................................................130

5 DISCUSSION.................................................................................134

5.1 Hybrid System................................................................................134

5.2 Structured Induction .......................................................................135

5.3 Coupling Method ............................................................................136

5.4 Programming Concepts..................................................................137

5.5 Computer Software.........................................................................137

5.6 Dairy Farms Designer Characteristics............................................138

5.7 Ubiquity and Verification.................................................................139

5.8 End User ........................................................................................139

5.9 How Does DFD Affect the Society?................................................139

5.9.1 Economical Effect...........................................................................140

5.9.2 Educational Effect...........................................................................140

5.9.3 Scientific Effect...............................................................................140

6 PROSPECTIVE..............................................................................141

7 SUMMARY.....................................................................................142

8 ZUSAMMENFASSUNG ......................................................................143

9 REFERENCES...............................................................................145

10

APPENDICES................................................................................149

Page 9

__________________________________________________________________________

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols V

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols

Symbol Description

AAC Allotted Area per Cow (m2/cow)

AC Corral Area (m2)

ACBP Area of Concrete Base of Milking Parlor (m2)

ACP Area of Cow Platform of Milking Parlor (m2)

ACCY Allotted Area per Cow in Collecting Yard of Milking Parlor (m2/cow)

ACY Area of collecting Yard of Milking Parlor (m2)

AEA Area of Entry Alley of Milking Parlor (m2)

AFEA Area of Front Exit Alley of Milking Parlor (m2)

AFP Area of One Side of Feeding Places in One Corral (m2)

AFS Forage Storage Area (m2)

AH House Area (m2)

AM Manure Lagoons/Tanks Area (m2)

AMC Area of Milking Center (m2)

AMPR Area of Milking Parlor Rooms (m2)

AMR Area of Milk Room (m2)

AMRP Area of Machinery Room of Milking Parlor (m2)

AMT Manure Tank Area (m2)

AO Office Area (m2)

AP Piles Area (m2)

APHS Area of Concrete Plot of Horizontal Silo (m2)

APM Area of Milking Parlor (m2)

APR Area of Personnel Room of Milking Parlor (m2)

APS Area of Concrete Sides of Milking Parlor (m2)

AR Roof Area (m2)

ARA Area of Return Alley of Milking Parlor (m2)

ARM Surface Area of One Reed Mat (m2)

ASH Shade Area (m2)

ASHF Shade Area for Feeding (m2)

ASHL Shade Area for Laying (m2)

ASM Surface Area of One Straw Mat (m2)

A tCL Total Area of Required Concrete Layer for Milking Center (m2)

A tF Total Area of Farm Facilities (m2)

A tFA Farm Total Area (ha)

A tPA Total Area of Cow Platforms and Alleys of Milking parlor (m2)

C Mass of Required Cement for Making 1 m3 Concrete (kg/m3)

CBM Concrete Base Sub-Model

CBMIS Computer-Based Management Information System

CDPW Costs of Depth Perception of a Well (Currency/m)

CEC Employment Costs for 1 m3 of Concrete (Currency/m3)

CECS Employment Costs of Cooling System (Currency)

CFAB Fixed Costs of All Cow Buildings (Currency/Year)

CFAS Fixed Costs of Aeration Storage (Currency/Year)

CFB Fixed Costs of Building (Currency/Year)

CFC Fixed Costs of Cows (Currency/Year)

CFCB Fixed Costs of Concrete Base (Currency/Year)

CFCC Fixed Costs of Milking Center Constructions (Currency/Year)

CFCF Fixed Costs of Farm Constructions (Currency/Year)

CFCH Fixed Costs of Concrete Construction of Horizontal Silo

(Currency/Year)

CFCM Fixed Costs of Concrete Constructions of Milking Center

(Currency/Year)

CFCS Fixed Costs of Cooling System (Currency/Year)

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VI

__________________________________________________________________________

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols

CFEG Fixed Costs of Farm Electricity Consumption from Governmental

Supply (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of the Farm (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Forage Storage Constructions (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Farm Fence (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Feeding System (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of One Electric Generator (Currency/Year)

Total of fixed costs of the generators (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Land (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Liquid Storage (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Manure Handling/Constructions (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Manure Handling System (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Manure Mechanical System (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Milking System (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Manure Tank (Currency/Year)

Other Fixed Costs (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Operating Supply Items (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of the Shed (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Raw Slurry Storage (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Technology (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Tower Silo (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Well (Currency/Year)

Fixed Costs of Farm Water Consumption from Governmental Supply

(Currency/Year)

Capital Investment of All Cow Buildings (Currency)

Capital Investment of Aeration Storage (Currency)

Capital Investment of Building (Currency)

Capital Investment of Cows (Currency)

Capital Investment of Concrete Base (Currency)

Capital Investment of Concrete Construction of Horizontal Silo

(Currency)

Capital Investment of Concrete Constructions of Milking Center

(Currency)

Capital Investment of Cooling System (Currency)

Capital investment of Drilling a Well (Currency)

Capital Investment of Farm Electricity Consumption from

Governmental Supply (Currency)

Capital Investment of the Farm (Currency)

Capital Investment of Forage Storage Constructions (Currency)

Capital Investment of Farm Fence (Currency)

Capital Investment of Feeding System (Currency)

Capital Investment of Farm Electricity Consumption Using Generators

(Currency)

Capital Investment of Land (Currency)

Capital Investment of Liquid Storage (Currency)

Capital Investment of Milking Center Constructions (Currency)

Capital Investment of Manure Handling/Constructions (Currency)

Capital Investment of Manure Handling System (Currency)

Capital Investment of Manure Mechanical System (Currency)

Capital Investment of Milking System (Currency)

Capital Investment of Manure Tank (Currency)

Other Capital Investments (Currency)

Capital Investment of Operating Supply Items (Currency)

Interest Payments (Currency/Year)

Capital Investment per Cow (Currency/Cow)

Capital Investment of the Shed (Currency)

CFF

CFFC

CFFF

CFFS

CFG

CFGS

CFL

CFLS

CFMC

CFMH

CFMM

CFMS

CFMT

CFO

CFOS

CFS

CFSS

CFT

CFTS

CFW

CFWG

CIAB

CIAS

CIB

CIC

CICB

CICH

CICM

CICS

CIDW

CIEG

CIF

CIFC

CIFF

CIFS

CIGE

CIL

CILS

CIM

CIMC

CIMH

CIMM

CIMS

CIMT

CIO

CIOS

CIP

CIPC

CIS

Page 11

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Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols VII

CISS

CITS

CIWG

Capital Investment of Raw Slurry Storage (Currency)

Capital Investment of Tower Silo (Currency)

Capital Investment of Farm Water Consumption from Governmental

Supply (Currency)

Costs Calculation Model

Costs of Mechanical Drilling of a well (Currency/m)

Other Costs of Well (Currency)

Operation Costs of Well Pump (Currency/m3)

Cowshed

Cooling System Sub-Model

Salaries of Workers (Currency/Year)

Taxes (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of All Cow Buildings (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Aeration Storage (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Building (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Cows (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Concrete Base (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Milking Center Constructions (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Farm Constructions (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Concrete Construction of Horizontal Silo

(Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Concrete Constructions of Milking Center

(Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Cooling System (Currency/Year)

Total Employment Costs of Concrete (Currency)

Total Costs of Farm Electricity Consumption from Governmental

Supply (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of the Farm (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Forage Storage Constructions (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Farm Fence (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Feeding System (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of the generators (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Land (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Liquid Storage (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Manure Handling/Constructions (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Manure Handling System (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Manure Mechanical System (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Milking System (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Manure Tank (Currency/Year)

Other Total Costs (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Operating Supply Items (Currency/Year)

Total Costs per Cow (Currency/Year.Cow)

Total Costs of the Shed (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Raw Slurry Storage (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Technology (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Tower Silo (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Well (Currency/Year)

Total Costs of Farm Water Consumption from Governmental Supply

(Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of All Cow Buildings (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Aeration Storage (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Building (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Cows (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Concrete Base (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Milking Center Constructions (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Farm Constructions (Currency/Year)

CM

CMDW

COW

COWP

CS

CSM

CSW

CT

CTAB

CTAS

CTB

CTC

CTCB

CTCC

CTCF

CTCH

CTCM

CTCS

CtEC

CTEG

CTF

CTFC

CTFF

CTFS

CTGS

CTL

CTLS

CTMC

CTMH

CTMM

CTMS

CTMT

CTO

CTOS

CTPC

CTS

CTSS

CTT

CTTS

CTW

CTWG

CVAB

CVAS

CVB

CVC

CVCB

CVCC

CVCF

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VIII

__________________________________________________________________________

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols

CVCH Variable Costs of Concrete Construction of Horizontal Silo

(Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Concrete Constructions of Milking Center

(Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Cooling System (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Farm Electricity Consumption from Governmental

Supply (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of the Farm (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Forage Storage Constructions (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Farm Fence (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Feeding System (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of One Electric Generator (Currency/Year)

Total of variable costs of the generators (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Land (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Liquid Storage (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Manure Handling/Constructions (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Manure Handling System (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Manure Mechanical System (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Milking System (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Manure Tank (Currency/Year)

Other Variable Costs (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of One Cow (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Operating Supply Items (Currency/Year)

Other Variable Costs of Well (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of the Shed (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Raw Slurry Storage (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Technology (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Tower Silo (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Well (Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Farm Water Consumption from Governmental Supply

(Currency/Year)

Variable Costs of Well Pump (Currency/Year)

Projection of DXn in the X-Axis (m)

Projection of DXn in the Y-Axis (m)

Projection of DYn in the X-Axis (m)

Projection of DYn in the Y-Axis (m)

Duration of Aeration (Day)

Duration of Composted Product Storage (Month)

Diameter of Cooling System Pipe Line (mm)

Daily Operating Duration of Milking System (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of Cooling System (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of Manure Handling system (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 1 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 2 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 3 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 4 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 5 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 6 (h/Day)

Daily Operating Duration of System 7 (h/Day)

Dairy Farms Designer Expert System

Hourly Operating Duration of Microsprinkler (min/h)

Design Model

Milking Duration (h)

Duration of Mixing and Pumping (Day)

Night Lighting Duration (h/Day)

Depth of Milking Parlor Pit (m)

CVCM

CVCS

CVEG

CVF

CVFC

CVFF

CVFS

CVG

CVGS

CVL

CVLS

CVMC

CVMH

CVMM

CVMS

CVMT

CVO

CVOC

CVOS

CVOW

CVS

CVSS

CVT

CVTS

CVW

CVWG

CVWP

D1Xn

D1Yn

D2Xn

D2Yn

DA

DCP

dCP

DDMS

DDOC

DDOM

DDS1

DDS2

DDS3

DDS4

DDS5

DDS6

DDS7

DFD

DHM

DM

DM

DMP

DNL

DP

Page 13

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Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols IX

DPXn

DPYn

DTL

DW

DX1

DX2

DX3

DXn

dX12

dX23

dX34

dXIJ

dX1F

dXnF

DY1

DY2

DY3

DYn

dY12

dY23

dY34

dYIJ

dY1F

dYnF

DYOC

ECF

ECM

ECP

ECSY

EFY

EG

EGP

EHS1

EHS2

EHS3

EHS4

EHS5

EHS6

EHS7

EL

ELSY

EMHH

EMHY

EMSH

EMSY

EYS1

EYS2

EYS3

EYS4

EYS5

EYS6

EYS7

FH

FSC

FSL

G

Projection of Building (n) Dimension in the X-Axis (m)

Projection of Building (n) Dimension in the Y-Axis (m)

Duration of Treated Liquid Storage (Month)

Well Depth (m)

Dimension of Building (1) in the X-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (2) in the X-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (3) in the X-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (n) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (1) and (2) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (2) and (3) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (3) and (4) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (I) and (J) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance in the X-Axis between Building (1) and the Fence (m)

Distance in the X-Axis between Building (n) and the Fence (m)

Dimension of Building (1) in the Y-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (2) in the Y-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (3) in the Y-Axis (m)

Dimension of Building (n) in the Y-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (1) and (2) in the Y-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (2) and (3) in the X-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (3) and (4) in the Y-Axis (m)

Distance between Buildings (I) and (J) in the Y-Axis (m)

Distance in the Y-Axis between Building (1) and the Fence (m)

Distance in the Y-Axis between Building (n) and the Fence (m)

Yearly Operating Duration of Cooling System (Months/Year)

Electricity Consumption of One Cooling Fan (kW)

Electricity Consumption and Sources Sub-Model

Electricity Consumption of Cooling System Pump (kW)

Cooling System Electricity Consumption per Year (kWh)

Farm Total Electricity Consumption per Year (kWh)

Electric Generators

Power of Electric Generator (kW)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 1 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 2 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 3 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 4 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 5 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 6 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Hour of System 7 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption of One Lamp (W)

Lighting System Electricity Consumption per Year (kWh)

Manure Handling System Electricity Consumption per Hour (kWh)

Manure Handling System Electricity Consumption per Year (kWh)

Milking System Electricity Consumption per Hour (kWh)

Milking System Electricity Consumption per Year (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 1 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 2 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 3 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 4 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 5 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 6 (kWh)

Electricity Consumption per Year of System 7 (kWh)

Farm House

Forage Storage Constructions Sub-Model

Farmstead Layout Sub-Model

Volume of Required Gravels for Making 1 m3 Concrete (m3/m3)

Page 14

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__________________________________________________________________________

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols

HC

HCS

HBB

HIT

HRC

HS

HS

HSS

HWHS

LC

LCB

LCL

Cowshed Height (m)

Height of Cowshed Side (m)

Height of Brisket Board (m)

Internal Height of Manure Tank (m)

Height of Rear Curb (m)

Horizontal Silo

Shed Height (m)

Height of the Shed Side (m)

Height of Horizontal Silo Wall (m)

Corral Length (m)

Concrete Base Length (m)

Side Length of the supposed square which represents the total area of

concrete layer required for milking center (m)

Length of Cooling System Main Line (m)

Cooling Line Length (m)

Length of Cow Platform of Milking Parlor (m)

Length of Cooling System Sub-Main Line (m)

Length of Entry Alley of Milking Parlor (m)

Feeding Bunk Length (m/cow)

Length of Front Exit Alley of Milking Parlor (m)

Length of One Side of Feeding Places in One Corral (m)

House Length (m)

Horizontal Silo Length (m)

Length of Milking Center (m)

Length of Milking Parlor Pit (m)

Pile Length (m)

Length of Pile Arrow (m)

Length of Pile Cord (m)

Length of Concrete Plot of Horizontal Silo (m)

Length of Milking Parlor (m)

Roof Length (m)

Length of Return Alley of Milking Parlor (m)

Structure Length (m)

Shade Length (m)

Length of One Standard Iron Rod (m)

Total Length of Cooling System Pipe Lines (m)

Margins (m)

Mass of one square meter of Burnt-Clay Bricks (kg/m2)

Milking Center

Cement Mass (kg)

Manure Handling/Constructions Sub-Model

Iron Mass (kg) or (Ton)

Mass of one square meter of Isolated Aluminum (kg/m2)

Mass of 1 m Long of Iron Rod (kg/m)

Milking Parlor Constructions Sub-Model

Mass of one square meter of Polished Aluminum (kg/m2)

Mass of one Reed Mat (kg/Mat)

Machinery Shop

Mass of one Straw Mat (kg/Mat)

Manure Tank

Total Mass of Burnt-Clay Bricks (kg)

Total Mass of Isolated Aluminum (kg)

Total Mass of Polished Aluminum (kg)

Total Mass of Reed Mats (kg)

Total Mass of Straw Mats (kg)

Roof Slope (%)

LCML

LCO

LCP

LCSL

LEA

LFB

LFEA

LFP

LH

LHS

LMC

LMP

LP

LPA

LPC

LPHS

LPM

LR

LRA

LS

LSH

LSI

LtCP

M

MBC

MC

MC

MHM

MI

MIA

MIML

MPC

MPA

MRM

MS

MSM

MT

MtBC

MtIA

MtPA

MtRM

MtSM

m

Page 15

__________________________________________________________________________

Abbreviations, Units, and Symbols XI

mCY

mEA

mFEA

mRA

NBF

NBWC

NCC

NCF

NCFP

NCH

NCLC

NCPP

NCSF

NCT

NCY

NEG

NG

NHC

NHF

NHSP

NIH

NIL

NIML

NIP

NIW

NLC

NLO

NM

NMD

NMHF

NMSF

NP

NPt

NRM

NSC

NSM

NS1

NS2

NS3

NS4

NS5

NS6

NS7

NtCF

NtI

NtIG

NtSI

NØD/m

Slope of Collecting Yard of Milking Parlor (%)

Slope of Entry Alley of Milking Parlor (%)

Slope of Front Exit Alley of Milking Parlor (%)

Slope of Return Alley of Milking Parlor (%)

Number of Cow Buildings in Farm

Number of Backwater Containers

Number of Cows in One Corral

Number of Cows in Farm

Cows per Feeding Place

Number of Cows in One House

Number of Cooling Lines for One Cowshed

Number of Composted Product Piles

Number of Cooling Systems in Farm

Number of Required Taps for Cooling System

Number of Cows in Collecting Yard

Number of Electric Generators

Number of Gridirons

Number of Corrals in One House

Number of Houses in Farm

Number of Horizontal Silo Pits

Number of Iron Rods in Tank Height

Number of Iron Rods in Length

Number of Iron Rods per One Meter Length of Concrete

Number of Iron Rods in Tank Perimeter

Number of Iron Rods in Width

Number of Lamps under One Cowshed/House

Number of Lamps in Other Locations (Alley, Office,…)

Number of Microsprinklers

Number of Milking per Day

Number of Manure Handling Systems in Farm

Number of Milking Systems in the Farm

Number of posts in one row

Total number of posts for one cowshed

Number of Reed Mats (Mat)

Number of Years (Seasons) per Cow (Year)

Number of Straw Mats (Mat)

Number of Systems 1 in Farm

Number of Systems 2 in Farm

Number of Systems 3 in Farm

Number of Systems 4 in Farm

Number of Systems 5 in Farm

Number of Systems 6 in Farm

Number of Systems 7 in Farm

Total Number of Cooling Fans

Total Number of Iron Rods

Total Number of Iron Rods in One Gridiron

Total Number of Standard Iron Rods

Type of Iron Rods, where N is the number of iron rods per meter

length, and D is the diameter of the iron rod in mm

Office/Operation Center

Part One

Part Two

Part Three

Price of Anemometer (Currency)

Price of 1 m2 of Burnt-Clay Bricks (Currency/m2)

Price of One Backwater Container (Currency)

O/OC

P1

P2

P3

PA

PBC

PBWC

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- Available from Mohamed Samer · Oct 31, 2012
- Available from Mohamed Samer · May 16, 2012