Reformulated tenofovir gel for use as a dual compartment microbicide.
ABSTRACT Coital use of 1% tenofovir gel was shown to be modestly effective at preventing HIV transmission when applied vaginally in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Because the gel is hyperosmolar, which would reduce the integrity of the epithelium and induce fluid movement into the lumen, rectal use may not be acceptable. This study evaluated the pre-clinical safety and efficacy of a reformulated (reduced osmolality) tenofovir gel product.
Reduced glycerine (RG)-tenofovir gel was compared with the original tenofovir gel for physiochemical characteristics, product safety and anti-HIV-1 activity.
The formulations were similar in all characteristics except for osmolality and spreadability/firmness. The RG-tenofovir gel had a 73% lower osmolality, a 29.6% increase in spreadability and a 27% decrease in firmness as compared with the original tenofovir gel. When applied to epithelial cell monolayers, tenofovir gel showed a transient reduction in the transepithelial resistance while the RG-tenofovir gel did not. Both gels retained ectocervical and colorectal explant viability. However, tenofovir gel treatment resulted in epithelial stripping that was absent after RG-tenofovir gel treatment of the polarized explants. Anti-HIV-1 activity was confirmed by lack of HIV-1 infection in polarized explants treated with either gel as compared with the control explants.
Reducing the osmolality of the tenofovir gel resulted in improved epithelial integrity, which suggests better safety upon rectal use. The improved gel safety did not compromise drug release or anti-HIV-1 activity. These data support the use of this gel as a dual compartment microbicide.
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ABSTRACT: Many sexual lubricants are hyperosmolar. Hyperosmolar enemas induce epithelial damage, and enema use has been associated with an increased risk of HIV infection. To inform the development of rectal microbicide formulation, we evaluated the effects of hyperosmolar gels on the rectal mucosa. Two commercial lubricants were compounded into iso-osmolar and hyperosmolar mixtures (283 and 3429 mOsm/kg, respectively). Each gel was radiolabeled with 500 micro Ci of (99m)Technetium-diethylene triaminepentaacetic acid, and 10 mL was given rectally to 10 subjects in random sequence. Sigmoidoscopy by an endoscopist blinded to treatment assignment was performed 90 min later to obtain luminal and mucosal samples. Urine radiolabel detection was used to assess mucosal permeability. Epithelial denudation 10 cm from the anus occurred to a greater degree with the hyperosmolar gel than with the iso-osmolar formulation (median toxicity grade, 2.50 vs. 1.17 out of 3, respectively; P=.009). The hyperosmolar gel was also associated with lower isotope luminal concentration at 10 cm, compared with the iso-osmolar gel (median, 8.9% vs. 54.6% of administered concentration, respectively). Mucosal permeability measured through 12 h was reduced with the hyperosmolar gel (P=.037). Rectally applied hyperosmolar gels induce greater epithelial denudation and luminal secretion than iso-osmolar gels. Because denudation plausibly increases the risk of HIV transmission, hyperosmolar gels make poor rectal microbicide formulations, and hyperosmolar sexual lubricants may increase susceptibility to HIV infection.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2007; 195(5):703-10. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Successful control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic requires reduction of HIV-1 transmission at sexually-exposed mucosae. No prevention studies of the higher-risk rectal compartment exist. We report the first-in-field Phase 1 trial of a rectally-applied, vaginally-formulated microbicide gel with the RT-inhibitor UC781 measuring clinical and mucosal safety, acceptability and plasma drug levels. A first-in-Phase 1 assessment of preliminary pharmacodynamics was included by measuring changes in ex vivo HIV-1 suppression in rectal biopsy tissue after exposure to product in vivo. HIV-1 seronegative, sexually-abstinent men and women (N = 36) were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing UC781 gel at two concentrations (0.1%, 0.25%) with placebo gel (1∶1∶1). Baseline, single-dose exposure and a separate, 7-day at-home dosing were assessed. Safety and acceptability were primary endpoints. Changes in colorectal mucosal markers and UC781 plasma drug levels were secondary endpoints; ex vivo biopsy infectibility was an ancillary endpoint. All 36 subjects enrolled completed the 7-14 week trial (100% retention) including 3 flexible sigmoidoscopies, each with 28 biopsies (14 at 10 cm; 14 at 30 cm). There were 81 Grade 1 adverse events (AEs) and 8 Grade 2; no Grade 3, 4 or procedure-related AEs were reported. Acceptability was high, including likelihood of future use. No changes in mucosal immunoinflammatory markers were identified. Plasma levels of UC781 were not detected. Ex vivo infection of biopsies using two titers of HIV-1(BaL) showed marked suppression of p24 in tissues exposed in vivo to 0.25% UC781; strong trends of suppression were seen with the lower 0.1% UC781 concentration. Single and 7-day topical rectal exposure to both concentrations of UC781 were safe with no significant AEs, high acceptability, no detected plasma drug levels and no significant mucosal changes. Ex vivo biopsy infections demonstrated marked suppression of HIV infectibility, identifying a potential early biomarker of efficacy. (Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov; #NCT00408538).PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e23243. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To establish the highest practical dose and frequency (HPDF) of 0.3% or 1% tenofovir vaginal gel applied once or twice daily by sexually abstinent HIV-uninfected women, and to evaluate the safety, tolerability and systemic pharmacokinetics of the HPDF in abstinent and sexually active HIV-negative and HIV-infected women. Eighty-four women, enrolled in sequential cohorts, used the study product for 14 consecutive intermenstrual days. Safety laboratory assessments and pelvic examinations were carried out during five study visits, with colposcopy at enrollment and on day 14. Samples for pharmacokinetics were collected before and after the initial tenofovir gel use and at day 13. The 1% tenofovir gel used twice daily was as well tolerated as other regimens used by the 48 HIV-negative sexually abstinent women, establishing the HPDF. Although 92% of the women reported at least one adverse event, the majority were mild (87%) and involved the genitourinary tract (70%). One possibly product-related severe adverse event involving lower abdominal cramping was reported by a sexually abstinent woman who used 0.3% gel twice daily. Serum tenofovir levels were low but detectable in 14 of the 25 women. No new HIV RNA resistance mutations were detected after 2 weeks of tenofovir gel in the 24 HIV-infected participants. No significant systemic toxicity was detected. A 2-week course of 1% tenofovir vaginal gel used twice daily was well tolerated in sexually abstinent and sexually active HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. Systemic tenofovir absorption occurred. Expanded safety and effectiveness testing is warranted.AIDS 02/2006; 20(4):543-51. · 6.41 Impact Factor