Flightless I is a focal adhesion-associated actin-capping protein that regulates cell migration
ABSTRACT The role of adhesion-associated actin-binding proteins in cell migration is not well defined. In mouse fibroblasts we screened for focal adhesion-associated proteins that were isolated with collagen-coated beads and detected by tandem mass spectrometry. We identified flightless I (FliI) as an actin-binding protein in focal adhesion fractions, which was verified by immunoblotting. By confocal microscopy most FliI was distributed throughout the cytosol and in focal adhesions. By sedimentation assays and in vitro binding assays, we found that FliI associates with actin filaments and actin monomers. Assays using purified proteins showed that FliI inhibits actin polymerization and caps but does not sever actin filaments. Cells with FliI knockdown or cells overexpressing FliI migrated more or less rapidly, respectively, than wild-type controls. Compared with controls, cells with FliI knockdown were less adherent than wild-type cells, exhibited reduced numbers of focal adhesions containing activated β1 integrins and vinculin, and exhibited increased incorporation of actin monomers into nascent filaments at focal adhesions. These data indicate that FliI regulates cell migration through its localization to focal adhesions and its ability to cap actin filaments, which collectively affect focal adhesion maturation.
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular Flightless I (Flii), a gelsolin family member, has been found to have roles modulating actin regulation, transcriptional regulation and inflammation. In vivo Flii can regulate wound healing responses. We have recently shown that a pool of Flii is secreted by fibroblasts and macrophages, cells typically found in wounds, and its secretion can be upregulated upon wounding. We show that secreted Flii can bind to the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide and has the potential to regulate inflammation. We now show that secreted Flii is present in both acute and chronic wound fluid.Communicative & integrative biology 11/2012; 5(6):546-549. DOI:10.4161/cib.21928
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ABSTRACT: Gelsolin superfamily members are Ca(2+) -dependent, multi-domain regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. Calcium binding activates gelsolin by inducing molecular gymnastics (large-scale conformational changes) that expose actin interaction surfaces by releasing a series of latches. A specialized tail latch has distinguished gelsolin within the superfamily. Active gelsolin exhibits actin filament severing and capping, and actin monomer sequestering activities. Here, we analyze a combination of sequence, structural, biophysical and biochemical data to assess whether the molecular plasticity, regulation and actin-related properties of gelsolin are also present in other superfamily members. We conclude that all members of the superfamily will be able to transition between a compact conformation and a more open form, and that most of these open forms will interact with actin. Supervillin, which lacks the severing domain 1 and the F-actin binding-site on domain 2, is the clear exception. Eight calcium-binding sites are absolutely conserved in gelsolin, adseverin, advillin and villin, and compromised to increasing degrees in CapG, villin-like protein, supervillin and flightless I. Advillin, villin and supervillin each contain a potential tail latch, which is absent from CapG, adseverin and flightless I, and ambiguous in villin-like protein. Thus, calcium regulation will vary across the superfamily. Potential novel isoforms of the superfamily suggest complex regulation at the gene, transcript and protein levels. We review animal, clinical and cellular data that illuminate how the regulation of molecular flexibility in gelsolin-like proteins permits cells to exploit the force generated from actin polymerization to drive processes such as cell movement in health and disease.Cytoskeleton 07/2013; 70(7). DOI:10.1002/cm.21117 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adhesion molecules expressed by periodontal connective tissue cells are involved in cell migration, matrix remodeling and inflammatory responses to infection. Currently, the processes by which the biologic activity of these molecules are appropriately regulated in time and space to preserve tissue homeostasis, and to control inflammatory responses and tissue regeneration, are not defined. As cell adhesions are heterogeneous, dynamic, contain a complex group of interacting molecules and are strongly influenced by the type of substrate to which they adhere, we focus on how cell adhesions in periodontal connective tissues contribute to information generation and processing that regulate periodontal structure and function. We also consider how proteomic methods can be applied to discover novel cell-adhesion proteins that could potentially contribute to the form and function of periodontal tissues.Periodontology 2000 10/2013; 63(1):48-58. DOI:10.1111/prd.12026 · 3.00 Impact Factor