Effects of Helicobacter pylori γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Human Biliary Cells

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.
Digestive Diseases and Sciences (Impact Factor: 2.61). 05/2012; 57(10):2615-24. DOI: 10.1007/s10620-012-2216-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several studies have reported the presence of H. pylori in individuals with hepatobiliary diseases, but in vitro and in vivo studies are still needed. Here, we determined the effects of H. pylori γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) on the induction of apoptosis and IL-8 production in a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-100 cells).
Cell viability and DNA synthesis were examined by MTT and BrdU assays, respectively. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to assess gene and protein expression, respectively. IL-8 secretion in KKU-100 cells was measured by ELISA.
Exposure to the H. pylori ggt (+) strain decreased KKU-100 cell survival and DNA synthesis when compared with cells exposed to the H. pylori ggt mutant strain. Treatment with recombinant H. pylori GGT (rHP-GGT) dramatically decreased cell survival and DNA synthesis, and stimulated apoptosis; these features corresponded to an increased level of iNOS gene expression in KKU-100 cells treated with rHP-GGT. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that rHP-GGT treatment enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules (Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3) and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). The extrinsic-mediated apoptosis molecules, including Fas and activated Caspase-8, were not expressed after treatment with rHP-GGT. Furthermore, rHP-GGT significantly stimulated IL-8 secretion in KKU-100 cells.
Our data indicate that H. pylori GGT might be involved in the development of cancer in hepatobiliary cells by altering cell kinetics and promoting inflammation.

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    • "Our previous in vitro studies revealed that H. pylori induces multiple effects in CCA cell lines, including inflammation (IL-8 production), cell proliferation and apoptosis [12,13]. We also found that at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI=1), H. pylori could induce inflammatory and cell proliferative responses in CCA cell lines. "
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection has been proposed to be associated with various diseases of the hepatobiliary tract, including cancer of the bile duct epithelial cells (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA). The ability of H. pylori bacteria to cause pathogenic effects in these cells has, however, yet to be investigated. Given that the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is required for H. pylori pathogenesis in gastric epithelial cells, we investigated wild-type and cag mutant strains for their ability to adhere, be internalized and induce pro-inflammatory responses in two bile duct epithelial cell lines derived from cases of CCA. The findings from these experiments were compared to results obtained with the well-characterized AGS gastric cancer cell line. We showed that the cagPAI encodes factors involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells, but not for adhesion to these cells. Consistent with previous studies in hepatocytes, actin polymerization and α5β1 integrin may be involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells. As for AGS cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in CCA cells stimulated with either cagA, cagL or cagPAI bacteria, when compared with wild-type bacteria. Importantly, these IL-8 responses could be inhibited via either pre-treatment of cells with antibodies to α5β1 integrins, or via siRNA-mediated knockdown of the innate immune signaling molecules, nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and myeloid differentiation response gene 88 (MyD88). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the cagPAI is critical for H. pylori pathogenesis in bile duct cells, thus providing a potential causal link for H. pylori in biliary tract disease.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77358. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077358 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "HPgGT represents an important virulence factor of H. pylori since it plays an essential role in the colonization of the gastric mucosa and predisposes infected individuals to a higher risk of developing peptic ulcer [26,27]. Furthermore, during H. pylori infection, gGT has been described to induce oxidative stress and is one of the bacterial virulence factors responsible for inducing the pro-inflammatory chemokine IL-8 in epithelial cells [27,28]. On the other hand, the effects induced by H. bilis gGT (HBgGT) remain largely unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Helicobacter bilis (H. bilis) infection is associated with cases of inflammatory bowel Disease, thyphlocolitis, hepatitis and cholecystitis. However, little is known about the bacterial virulence determinants or the molecular mechanisms involved. Recently, H. bilis γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (HBgGT) was shown to be a virulence factor decreasing host cell viability. Bacterial gGTs play a key role in synthesis and degradation of glutathione and enables the bacteria to utilize extracellular glutamine and glutathione as sources of glutamate. gGT-mediated loss of cell viability has so far been linked to DNA damage via oxidative stress, but the signaling cascades involved herein have not been described. In this study, we identified enhanced ROS production induced by HBgGT as a central factor involved in the activation of the oxidative stress response cascades, which finally activate CREB, AP-1 and NF-κB in H. bilis infected colon cancer cells. IL-8, an important pro-inflammatory chemokine that is a common downstream target of these transcription factors, was up-regulated upon H. bilis infection in an HBgGT dependent manner. Moreover, the induction of these signaling responses and inflammatory cytokine production in host cells could be linked to HBgGT-mediated glutamine deprivation. This study implicates for the first time HBgGT as an important regulator of signaling cascades regulating inflammation in H. bilis infected host epithelial cells that could be responsible for induction of inflammatory disorders by the bacterium.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e73160. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073160 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H. pylori colonizes half of the world's population leading to gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori strains resistant to antibiotics are increasing which raises the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to decrease H. pylori growth and its associated-inflammation through mechanisms poorly characterized. We aimed to explore DHA action on H. pylori-mediated inflammation and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells (AGS) and also to identify bacterial structures affected by DHA. H. pylori growth and metabolism was assessed in liquid cultures. Bacterial adhesion to AGS cells was visualized by transmission electron microscopy and quantified by an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Inflammatory proteins were assessed by immunoblotting in infected AGS cells, previously treated with DHA. Bacterial total and outer membrane protein composition was analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Concentrations of 100 µM of DHA decreased H. pylori growth, whereas concentrations higher than 250 µM irreversibly inhibited bacteria survival. DHA reduced ATP production and adhesion to AGS cells. AGS cells infected with DHA pre-treated H. pylori showed a 3-fold reduction in Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production and a decrease of COX2 and iNOS. 2D electrophoresis analysis revealed that DHA changed the expression of H. pylori outer membrane proteins associated with stress response and metabolism and modified bacterial lipopolysaccharide phenotype. As conclusions our results show that DHA anti-H. pylori effects are associated with changes of bacteria morphology and metabolism, and with alteration of outer membrane proteins composition, that ultimately reduce the adhesion of bacteria and the burden of H. pylori-related inflammation.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60657. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060657 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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