Effects of Helicobacter pylori γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase on Apoptosis and Inflammation in Human Biliary Cells.
ABSTRACT Several studies have reported the presence of H. pylori in individuals with hepatobiliary diseases, but in vitro and in vivo studies are still needed. Here, we determined the effects of H. pylori γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) on the induction of apoptosis and IL-8 production in a human cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-100 cells).
Cell viability and DNA synthesis were examined by MTT and BrdU assays, respectively. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to assess gene and protein expression, respectively. IL-8 secretion in KKU-100 cells was measured by ELISA.
Exposure to the H. pylori ggt (+) strain decreased KKU-100 cell survival and DNA synthesis when compared with cells exposed to the H. pylori ggt mutant strain. Treatment with recombinant H. pylori GGT (rHP-GGT) dramatically decreased cell survival and DNA synthesis, and stimulated apoptosis; these features corresponded to an increased level of iNOS gene expression in KKU-100 cells treated with rHP-GGT. RT-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that rHP-GGT treatment enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules (Bax, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3) and down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL). The extrinsic-mediated apoptosis molecules, including Fas and activated Caspase-8, were not expressed after treatment with rHP-GGT. Furthermore, rHP-GGT significantly stimulated IL-8 secretion in KKU-100 cells.
Our data indicate that H. pylori GGT might be involved in the development of cancer in hepatobiliary cells by altering cell kinetics and promoting inflammation.
- SourceAvailable from: Chariya Hahnvajanawong[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection has been proposed to be associated with various diseases of the hepatobiliary tract, including cancer of the bile duct epithelial cells (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA). The ability of H. pylori bacteria to cause pathogenic effects in these cells has, however, yet to be investigated. Given that the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is required for H. pylori pathogenesis in gastric epithelial cells, we investigated wild-type and cag mutant strains for their ability to adhere, be internalized and induce pro-inflammatory responses in two bile duct epithelial cell lines derived from cases of CCA. The findings from these experiments were compared to results obtained with the well-characterized AGS gastric cancer cell line. We showed that the cagPAI encodes factors involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells, but not for adhesion to these cells. Consistent with previous studies in hepatocytes, actin polymerization and α5β1 integrin may be involved in H. pylori internalization in CCA cells. As for AGS cells, we observed significantly reduced levels of NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in CCA cells stimulated with either cagA, cagL or cagPAI bacteria, when compared with wild-type bacteria. Importantly, these IL-8 responses could be inhibited via either pre-treatment of cells with antibodies to α5β1 integrins, or via siRNA-mediated knockdown of the innate immune signaling molecules, nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and myeloid differentiation response gene 88 (MyD88). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the cagPAI is critical for H. pylori pathogenesis in bile duct cells, thus providing a potential causal link for H. pylori in biliary tract disease.PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77358. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a bacterial virulence factor that converts glutamine into glutamate and ammonia, and converts glutathione into glutamate and cysteinylglycine. H. pylori GGT causes glutamine and glutathione consumption in the host cells, ammonia production and reactive oxygen species generation. These products induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and necrosis in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori GGT may also inhibit apoptosis and induce gastric epithelial cell proliferation through the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor-related peptides, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-8. H. pylori GGT induces immune tolerance through the inhibition of T cell-mediated immunity and dendritic cell differentiation. The effect of GGT on H. pylori colonization and gastric persistence are also discussed.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; 20(3):630-638. · 2.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) produce an enzyme known as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (HpGGT) that is highly conserved and common to all strains. HpGGT has been gaining increasing attention as an important virulence factor of the bacterium, having been demonstrated to be an important colonization factor in several animal models and has also recently been strongly associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease. From the results of various independent researcher groups, it is clear that HpGGT acts through several pathways to damage gastric epithelial cells including the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, production of reactive oxygen species leading to DNA damage, promotion of inflammation by increasing cyclooxygenase-2 and interleukin-8 expression, and upregulation of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor resulting in cell survival and proliferation. In addition, the potential role of HpGGT in promoting gastric carcinogenesis will also be discussed in this review. Apart from affecting the gastric epithelium, HpGGT also has immunomodulatory actions on host immune cells where it displays an antiproliferative effect on T cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and also works with other H. pylori virulence factors to skew dendritic cells towards a tolerogenic phenotype, possibly contributing to the persistence of the pathogen in the gastric mucosa.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 19(45):8203-8210. · 2.43 Impact Factor