Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Biosciences Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1605 Albrecht Blvd., Fargo, ND 58102-2765, USA.
Functional & Integrative Genomics (Impact Factor: 2.48). 05/2012; 12(3):515-31. DOI: 10.1007/s10142-012-0280-5
Source: PubMed


Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ~65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ~2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth.

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    • "Finally, a DREB1A genes over-expressed during ecodormancy was identified. Several studies reported that DREB transcription factors are essential for dormancy regulation in plants [47,66]. DREB1A transcription factor contains an AP2/EREB motif and have a binding function to the promoter containing the CRT/DRE (Dehydratation responsive element) which exists in many LEA genes including ERD genes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduced plants may quickly evolve new adaptive traits upon their introduction. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense - Cardueae, Asteraceae) is one of the worst invasive weeds worldwide. The goal of this study is to compare gene expression profiles of native (European) and introduced (North American) populations of this species, to elucidate the genetic mechanisms that may underlie such rapid adaptation. We explored the transcriptome of ten populations (five per range) of C. arvense in response to three treatments (control, nutrient deficiency and shading) using a customized microarray chip containing 63 690 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and verified the expression level of 13 loci through real-time quantitative PCR. Only 2116 ESTs (3.5%) were found to be differentially expressed between the ranges, and 4458 ESTs (7.1%) exhibited a significant treatment-by-range effect. Among them was an overrepresentation of loci involved in stimulus and stress responses. Cirsium arvense has evolved different life history strategies on each continent. The two ranges notably differ with regard to R-protein mediated defence, sensitivity to abiotic stresses, and developmental timing. The fact that genotypes from the Midwest exhibit different expression kinetics than remaining North American samples further corroborates the hypothesis that the New World has been colonized twice, independently.
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